Hematology Flashcards Preview

Internal Medicine Mnemonics > Hematology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Hematology Deck (86):
1

Hemoglobin A

Most abundant form in adults

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HbA1C

Use to determine levels of glucose by non-enzymatic addition of glucose to hemoglobin

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Methemoglobin

Oxidation of the heme component of hemoglobin to iron which cannot bind oxygen

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Carboxyhemoglobin

Form of hemoglobin where CO binds tightly but reversibly

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Fetal Hemoglobin

Tetramer consisting of two alphas and gamma chains

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Hemoglobin Bart's

Gamma-tetramers in the newborns

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Cirrhosis, Diabetes, Hypogonadism

Clinical syndrome of hemochromatosis

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Heme-cointaining

Hemoglobin - (+)

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Contains fibrous components

Hemoglobin - (-)

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Level of structure exhibited

Hemoglobin - quaternary

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Tissues in the body where it is mostly found

Hemoglobin - blood

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Number of maximum bound oxygen molecules

Hemoglobin - 4

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Oxygen binding affected by pH and CO2

Hemoglobin - yes

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Function in relationship with oxygen

Hemoglobin - O2 transporter

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Has taut and relaxed forms

Hemoglobin - yes

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Curve exhibited in terms of O2 dissociation

Hemoglobin - sigmoidal

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Megaloblastic Anemia

Impairment of DNA synthesis that leads to distinctive morphologic changes

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Iron Deficiency Anemia

Most common nutritional disorder in the world

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Anemia of Chronic Disease

Most common cause of anemia among hospitalized patients

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Aplastic Anemia

Syndrome of chronic primary hemtopoietic failure and attendant pancytopenia

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Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome

Platelet - normal

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Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura (ITP)

Platelet - decreased

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TTP

Platelet - decreased

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Bernard-Soulier Syndrome

Platelet - decreased

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Glanzmann's Thrombasthenia

Platelet - normal

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Von Villebrand Disease

Platelet - normal

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Hemophilia

Platelet - normal

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Vitamin K Deficiency

Platelet - normal

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Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC)

Platelet - decreased

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Hereditary Spherocytosis

Intrinsic, extravascular

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G6PD Deficiency

Intrinsic, intravascular

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Sickle Cell Anemia

Intrinsic, extravascular

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Thalassemia

Intrinsic, extravascular

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Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria

Intrinsic, intravascular

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Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia

Extrinsic, intravascular

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Microangiopathic Hemolytic Anemia

Extrinsic, intravascular

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Macroangiopathic Hemolytic Anemia

Extrinsic, intravascular

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Pallor, jaundice and splenomegaly

Triad of hemolytic anemia

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Presence of splenomegaly in extravascular hemolysis

Differentiates intravascular from extravascular hemolysis

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Hereditary Spherocytosis

Autosomal dominant disorder caused by intrinsic defects in the red cell membrane; increased MCHC

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G6PD Deficiency

X-linked recessive disorder that reduces protection of RBCs from oxidative injuries, leading to hemolysis

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Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria

Intravascular hemolysis due to increased complement medicated RBC lysis

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Microangiopathic Hemolytic Anemia

Hemolytic anemia seen in DIC, TTP-HUS, SLE, and malignant hypertension

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Macroangiopathic Hemolytic Anemia

Caused by trauma to RBCs in individuals with cardiac valve prostheses

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Hereditary spherocytosis

Description - small hyperchromic RBC lacking central pallor

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Asplenia

Description - small dark nuclear remnants in RBCs of asplenic patients

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G6PD deficiency

Description - membrane-bound precipitates on denatured globin chains

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G6PD deficiency

Description - RBCs with damaged membranes due to removal of Heinz bodies by splenic macrophages

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Sickle cell anemia

Description - RBCs shaped like curbed blades

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Sickle cell anemia; Thalassemia

Description - dehydrated RBCs with bull's eye appearance

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RBC trauma, certain drugs, HUS

Description - fragmented RBCs; also called helmet cells if cut in half

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RBC trauma

Description - RBCs with spikes

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Bence-Jone Proteins

Excess light or heavy chains along with complete Ig synthesized by neoplastic plasma cells

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Thymoma

Tumor of the thymus associated with myasthenia gravis and pure red cell aplasia

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Multiple myeloma

Most important monoclonal gammopathy usually presenting as tumorous masses scattered throughout the skeletal system

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Nodular Sclerosis

(HL) Most common type; lacunar variant RS cells

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Lymphocyte-rich

(HL) Lymphocytes make up the vast majority of cellular infiltrate; mononuclear variant RS cells; best prognosis

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Lymphocyte predominant

(HL) Relatively good prognosis; contains popcorn cells

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Lymphocyte-depleted

(HL) Worst prognosis

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Diffuse large B-cell

(NHL) Most common type

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Burkitt's lymphoma

(NHL) Translocation on chromosome 8; presents with starry-sky pattern

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Mantle cell lymphoma

(NHL) Biopsy reveals homogenous population of small lymphocytes, does not have centroblasts and proliferation centers

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HL

Reed-Sternberg Cells

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NHL

Associated with HIV and immunosuppression

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NHL

Multiple peripheral nodes; extranodal involvement common, non-contiguous spread

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HL

Low-grade fever, night sweats, weight loss

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HL

EBV association; bimodal distribution

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Severe infection

Description - abnormal azurophilic (primary) granules

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Severe infection

Description - patches of dilated endoplasmic reticulum that appear as sky blue cytoplasmic puddles

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Acute Myelogenous Leukemia

Description - distinctive needle-like azurophilic granules found in myeloblasts

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Chronic Myeloid Leukemia

Description - scattered macrophages with abundant wrinkled green blue cytoplasm

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Chronic Lymphoid Leukemia

Description - small lymphocytes disrupted in the process of making smears

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Hodgkin's lymphoma

Description - large cells with multiple nuclei or a single nucleus with multiple lobes

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Adult T-cell lymphoma

Description - cells found in adult T-cell lymphoma which appear to have multi-lobulated nuclei

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Multiple myeloma

Description - destructive plasma cell tumors involving axial skeleton

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Multiple myeloma

Description - fiery red cytoplasm

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Multiple myeloma

Description - pink globular cytoplasmic inclusion

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Multiple myeloma

Description - blue globular nuclear inclusions

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Multiple myeloma

Description - M proteins causing RBCs to stick in linear arrays

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Sideroblastic anemia

Description - erythroblasts with iron-laden mitochondria visible as perinuclear granules

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Myelodysplastic syndrome

Description - neutrophils with only two nuclear lobes

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Myelodysplastic syndrome

Description - megakaryocytes with single nuclear lobes or multiple separate nuclei

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Primary myelofibrosis

Description - premature release of nucleated erythroid and early granulocyte progenitors

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Primary myelofibrosis

Description - cells that were probably damaged during the birthing process in the fibrotic marrow

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Langerhans cell histiocytosis

Description - pentalaminar tubules, often with a dilated terminal end (tennis racket-like appearance)

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Congestion of the spleen

Description - small yellow-brown, brown or rust-colored foci in the spleen