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Flashcards in Cardioooo Deck (114):
1

What occupies most of the anterior cardiac surface

right ventricle

2

What does the right ventricle and pulmonary artery form

wedge-like structure behind and to the left of the sternum

3

Where does the inferior border of the right ventricle lie

below the junction of the sternum and the xiphoid process

4

Where is the right ventricle located

narrows superiorly

5

Where is the left ventricle located

behind the right ventricle and to the left

6

Where is the PMI located

found in the 5th interspace lateral to the midsternal line

7

What is a PMI >2.5 evident of?

Left Ventricular Hypertrophy

8

In patients with COPD where can the PMI be located

xiphoid or epigastric area as a result of right ventricular hypertrophy

9

Where is the aorta located

curves upward from the left ventricle to level of sternal angle

10

Where is S1 and S2 produced

S1 - closure of mitral valve

11

What 2 discernible components do you hear from S2

A2 - aortic valve closure

12

Of the two components of S2 which is louder and why

A2 louder

13

When is S3 produced

abrupt deceleration of inflow across the mitral valve

14

When is S4 produced

increased left ventricular and diastolic stiffness which decrease compliance

15

Which side usually occurs first the right side or left side

Left side occurs lightly earlier

16

Why does the right side occur slight later

due to inspiration and increase in right ventricular stroke volume

17

Of the two components of S2 which is lower and where is it located

P2 is softer - the lower pressure of pulmonary artery

18

What are heart murmurs

turbulent blood flow

19

What types of diseases can cause heart murmurs

stenotic valve

20

What are types of murmurs and where are they usually heard

mitral valve - at or around the apex of heart

21

Review of conduction system

P wave ->atrial depolarization

22

What is Cardiac Output

volume of blood ejected from each ventricle in 1 min

23

What is Stroke volume

blood ejected with each heartbeat

24

What is Preload

load that stretches cardiac muscle

25

What increases preload

increase of venous return to heart

26

What decreases preload

exhalation

27

What is Myocardial Contractility

increases when stimulated from Sympathetic Nervous system

28

What is Afterload

degree of vascular resistance to ventricular contraction

29

What are the main sources of Afterload

walls of aorta

30

What is Jugular Venous Pressure

reflects right atrial pressure

31

What causes jugular venous pulsations

changing pressures in the right atrium during diastole and systole

32

Where is the apical impulse heard the best

children

33

At what point does the Apical Impulse start to become harder to find

as the chest deepens in its anteroposterior diameter

34

Is the splitting of S2 hard to hear in older people and if so, why?

Yes

35

Where is a jugular venous hum heard?

common in children

36

When assessing cardiac symptoms what should you quantify

the patients baseline level of activity

37

What is the most common symptom of Coronary Heart disease

CHEST PAIN

38

What are the symptoms that make up Angina Pectoris

exertional pain

39

what are symptoms of Acute Aortic Dissection

anterior chest pain

40

What are palpitations

unpleasant awareness of the heartbeat

41

What is Afib

Irregularly irregular

42

What are premature contractions

transient skips and flip-flops

43

What is Paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia

rapid regular beating of sudden onset and offset

44

What is Sinus Tachycardia

rapid regular rate of < 120 beats/min, especially if starting or stopping more gradually

45

What can Shortness of Breath represent

Dyspnea

46

What is dyspnea

uncomfortable awareness of breathing

47

What is orthopnea

SOB occurs when a patient is lying down

48

What is PND

episodes of sudden dyspnea and orthopnea

49

What can PND be a cause of

left ventricular hear failure

50

What is edema

excessive fluid in extravascular interstitial space

51

What is dependent edema

appears in the lowest body parts

52

What are some causes of dependent edema

heart failure

53

What two diseases are most popular with edema

nephrotic syndrome

54

How do you screen for Cardiovascular Risk factors

screen for Global risk factors

55

What are the risk factors for Cardiovascular disease

hypertension

56

What characteristics constitute high risk for Women 2011

>1 high risk states which include

57

What are the major risk factors that would make a woman at risk for Cardiovascular disease

smoking

58

What diseases make a woman at risk for Cardiovascular disease

subclinical atherosclerosis

59

What are the ideal characteristic for someone to AVOID cardiovascular disease

TC <200

60

Which risk factors should be screened with frequency at each drs visit

cigarette smoking

61

What are the goals of those same risk factors

Smoking - Quit

62

What is the screening frequency for someone with dyslipidemia

Every 5 years if low risk

63

What is the screening frequency for someone with Diabetes

Every three years beginning at 45

64

What is the A1C for patients with diabetics

HgA1C >6.5%

65

When should pulse be checked and what is the goal

check at each visit

66

Classification and Management of Blood Pressure for Adults

Normal: <120/80

67

What is the screening criteria for healthy adults with no risk factors

begin at age 45

68

What patients need to be screened regularly for diabetes

Adults with a BMI >25

69

What are other characteristics for adults make them necessary for screening for diabetes

HDL cholesterol 250

70

What is the diagnostic criteria for Diabetes and Prediabetes

A1C >6.5% for Diabetic & 5.7%-6.4% for Pre-Diabetes

71

What is ATP III Guidelines: 10 Year risk and LDL goals for someone that is in the high risk category (>20%)

LDL goal (<100)

72

What is ATP III Guidelines: 10 Year risk and LDL goals for someone that is in the moderately high risk category (10-20%)

LDL goal <130

73

What is ATP III Guidelines: 10 Year risk and LDL goals for someone that is in the moderate risk category (<10%)

LDL goal <130

74

What is ATP III Guidelines: 10 Year risk and LDL goals for someone that is in the lower risk category (0-1 risk factor)

LDL goal < 160

75

what is the metabolic syndrome: 2009 Diagnostic Criteria(Must meet 3 or more of 5)

Waist: Men >102cm & women >88cm

76

Lifestyle Modifications to Prevent or Manage Hypertension

Optimal weight or BMI of 18.5-24.9

77

Promoting Lifestyle changes and risk factor modifications

Promote CH health is a priority for HP 2020

78

what are the healthy fats high in

Monounsaturated (almonds, pecans, peanuts)

79

What are unhealthy fats

foods high in cholesterol (dairy products, egg yolks, liver & organ meats)

80

What are Rhythms that are of Normal rate

NSR (60-100)

81

what rhythms are fast (over 100)

Sinus tachycardia (100-180)

82

What rhythms are slow (under 60)

Sinus brady (<60)

83

What is Sporadic Sinus Arrhythmia

heart varies cyclically

84

What is atrial or Nodal Premature contractions

beat from atrium or node comes earlier

85

what is ventricular premature beats

ventricular beat comes early

86

What is atrial fibrillation and Atrial Flutter with varying AV block

ventricular rhythm is totally irregular

87

What are the abnormalities of the Arterial pulse and pressure waves

normal

88

what is a normal pulse

30-40mmHg

89

what are small, weak pulses

lower pulse pressure

90

What are the causes of small weak pulses

decreased stroke volume

91

What are large, bounding pulses

increased pressure and feels strong

92

What are the causes of large, bounding pulses

increased stroke volume

93

What is Bisferiens Pulse

increased arterial pulse with a double systolic peak

94

What are the causes of Bisferiens pulse

aortic regurgitation

95

What is pulsus alternans

pulse alternates in amp from beat to beat

96

What are the causes of Pulsus Alternans

caused by left ventricular failure

97

What is a Bigeminal Pulse

mimic pulsus alternans

98

What is a paradoxical pulse

decreased pulse amp on quiet inspiration

99

what are the causes of Paradoxical pulse

pericardial tamponade

100

What is the Left Ventricular Point of Max Impulse

due to apex of heart moving up against chest wall during contraction

101

what is a Normal LV PMI

discreet diameter less than equal to 2cm

102

What is hyperkinetic ventricular impulse

transiently increased stoke volume

103

What are two other characteristics of hyperkinetic ventricular impulse

2cm but increased am can make it seem bigger

104

What is pressure overload

leads to ventricular hypertrophy

105

What is volume overload left ventricular impulse

leads to ventricular dilation

106

What is hyperkinetic right ventricular impulse

anxiety, hyperparathyroid, anemia

107

What is pressure overload right ventricular impulse

pulmonic stenosis, pulm HTN

108

What is volume overload right ventricular impulse

atrial septal defect

109

What are the characteristics for normal variation in S1

softer than S2 at base (2nd interspace)

110

What is accentuated S1 sound?

mitral valve still open wide at onset of ventricular systole

111

What are examples of accentuated S1 sounds

Tachycardia

112

What is diminished S1 sound

1st degree heart block

113

What is varying S1

mitral valve is in varying position before being shut by ventricular contraction

114

What is Split S1

normal along lower left sternum