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Flashcards in Workbook5 Deck (113):
1

Primary Headaches

No identifiable underlying cause

2

Secondary Headaches

Arise from other conditions

3

If headache is severe and of sudden onset

Subarachnoid hemorrhage or meningitis

4

Episodic headaches that peak over several hours

Migraine and Tension

5

New and persisting, progressively severe headaches raise concern of...

Tumor, abscess, mass lesions

6

Unilateral headaches found in...

Migraine and cluster headaches

7

Tension headaches found in...

Temporal areas

8

Cluster headaches found in

Retro-orbital areas

9

Associated symptoms of nausea and vomiting associated with...

Migraines, brain tumors, subarachnoid hemorrhage

10

Feelings of euphoria, food cravings, fatigue, or dizziness, aura, change in vision, numbness/weakness in arm or leg associated with...

Migraines

11

If coughing/sneezing/head position worsens headache it could be...

Pain from brain tumor, acute sinusitis

12

Pts. with chronic daily headaches taking symptomatic meds 2+ days per week might have...

Medication overuse

13

Hyperopia

Farsightedness (Difficulty seeing close up)

14

Presbyopia

Aging vision (impaired near vision)

15

Myopia

Nearsightedness (problems with distance)

16

Unilateral visual loss that is painless might suggest...

Vitreous hemorrhage from diabetes or trauma, macular degeneration, retinal detachment, retinal vein occlusion, or central retinal artery occlusion

17

Unilateral visual loss that is painful might suggest...

Corneal ulcer, uveitis, traumatic hyphema, acute glaucoma, optic neuritis from MS

18

Sudden and painless bilateral visual loss caused by...

Medications that change refraction (i.e. cholinergics, anticholinergics, and steroids)

19

Sudden and painful bilateral visual loss caused by...

Chemical or radiation exposures

20

Gradual bilateral visual loss caused by...

Cataracts, macular degeneration

21

Slow central visual loss caused by...

Nuclear cataract, macular degeneration

22

Peripheral visual loss caused by...

Advanced open-angle glaucoma

23

One-sided visual loss caused by...

Hemainopsia, quadrantic defects

24

Visual field moving specks/strands suggest...

Vitreous floaters

25

Visual field fixed defects suggest...

Lesions in the retina or visual pathways

26

Flashing lights in visual field suggest...

Detachment of vitreous from retina...should have prompt eye consultation

27

Diplopa arises from...

Lesion in brainstem/cerebellum, weakness/paralysis of extraocular muscles

28

Horizontal diplopia due to palsy from CN...

III or VI

29

Vertial diplopia from palsy of CN...

III or IV

30

Diplopia in one eye with the other eye closed suggests...

Cornea/lens issue

31

Hearing loss due to...

Congenital, single gene mutations

32

Conductive hearing loss due to...

Problems in external or middle ear

33

Sensorinerual loss due to...

Problems in inner ear, cochlear nerve, connections to the brain

34

Having trouble understanding speech, complaining that others mumble, and noisy environments makes it worse suggests...

Sensorineural loss

35

Noisy environments help hearing suggests...

Conductive loss

36

Otitis externa

Pain in external ear

37

Otitis media

Pain in inner ear

38

Ear pain associated with other symptoms of respiratory infection/referred from mouth/throat/neck suggests...

Otitis media

39

Soft wax discharge, debris from inflammation, rash in ear canal suggests...

Otitis media

40

Tinnitus

Percieved sound with no external stimulus

41

Tinnitus + hearing loss + vertigo suggests...

Meniere's disease

42

Vertigo suggests problem in these places:

Labrynths of inner ear, peripheral lesions of CN VIII, or lesions in central pathways/nuclei in brain

43

Best way to ask about vertigo:

do you have feelings of being pulled to the ground or off to one side?

44

Rhinorrhea

Drainage from the nose

45

Causes of rhinorrhea

Viral infections, allergic rhinitis (hay fever), vasomort rhinitis

46

Rhinitis medicamentosa

Drainage from nose worsened by excessive use of decongestants

47

Symtoms of acute bacterial sinusitis

Symptoms appearing agter a URI, pain bending forward, maxillary toothache, tenderness over sinuses

48

Drugs that cause stuffiness

Oral contraceptives, alcohol, reserpine, guanethidine

49

Nasal congestion limited to one side suggests...

Deviated septum, foreign body, tumor

50

Epistaxis

Bleeding from the nose

51

Causes of epistaxis

Trauma, inflammation, drying, crusting, tumors, foreign bodies

52

Fever, pharyngeal exudates, anterior lymphdenopathy, especially in the absence of cough suggests...

Streptococcal pharyngitis (strep throat)

53

Sore tongue results from...

Local lesions, systemic illness

54

Bleeding gums caused by...

Gingivitis

55

Causes of chronic hoarsness

Smoking, allergy, voice abuse, hypothyroidism, chronic infections i.e. tuberculosis, tumors

56

Enlarged, tender lymph nodes accompany:

Pharyngitis

57

Intolerance to cold, decreased sweating suggests:

Hypothyroidism

58

Palpitations and involuntary weight loss suggests:

Hyperthyroidism

59

Fine hair accompanies:

Hyperthyroidism

60

Coarse hair accompanies:

Hypothyroidism

61

Redness and scaling of scalp may indicate:

Seborrheic dermatitis, psoriasis

62

Enlarged skull indicates

Hydrocephalus or Paget's disease of bone

63

Hirsutism

Excessive facial hair

64

Hirsutism caused by

Polycystic ovary syndrome

65

Vision of 20/200 means...

At twenty feet, the patient can read print that a person with normal vision could read at 200 ft (larger second number = worse vision)

66

Legally blind

20/200 or less in better eye, corrected

67

Temporal hemianopsia

Pt can't see temporal sides

68

Homonymous hemanopsia

Temporal defect in visual field of one eye, nasal defect in the other eye

69

Enlarged blind spot in:

Glaucoma, optic neuritis, papilledema

70

Inward/outward deviation of eyes or abnormal protrusion seen in

Graves' disease, ocular tumors

71

Eyebrow scaliness seen in

Seborrheic dermatitis

72

Lateral sparseness of eyebrows seen in:

Hypothyroidsim

73

Upstarting palepbral fissures seen in:

Downs syndrome

74

Red inflamed lid margins:

Blepharitis

75

Excessive tearing from increased production of tears seen in:

Conjunctival inflammation, corneal irritation

76

Excessive tearing due to impaired draininge of tears seen in:

Ectropion, Nasolacrimal duct obstruction

77

Jaundice

Yellow sclera

78

Miosis

Constriction of the puplis

79

Mydriasis

Dilation of pupils

80

Aniscoria

Pupillary inequality of .5 mm or less (benign if reactions are normal)

81

Asymmetry of corneal reflex suggests:

Deviation from normal ocular alignment

82

A fine, rhythmic, oscillation of the eyes

Nystagmus

83

Abnormal proturstion of eyeball

Proptosis or Exophthalmos

84

Proptosis caused by:

Hyperhyroidism

85

Poor convergence seen in:

Hyperthyroidism

86

Reasons for dilating the eyes:

Head injury, coma, suspicion of narrow angle glaucoma

87

Absence of a red reflex suggests:

Opicaity of lens (cataract), detached retina, or retinoblastoma in children

88

Swelling of optic disc and anterior bulging of physiologic cup

Papilledema

89

Papilledema suggests:

Meningitis, subarachnoid hemorrhage, trauma, mass lesions

90

Loss of venous pulsations signifies:

Head trauma, meningitis, mass lesions, elevated intracranial pressure

91

Exostoses

Nonmalignant overgrowths in ear canals

92

Skin of ear canal is thickened, red, and itchy in addition to being swollen

Chronic Otis Externa

93

Red, bulging, ear drum indicates:

Otitis media

94

Prominent short process and prominent handle suggests:

Retracted Drum

95

Sound is heard in the impaired ear in:

Unilateral conductive hearing loss

96

Sound is heard in the good ear in:

Unilateral sensorineural hearing loss

97

BC= AC or BC>AC

Conductive hearing loss

98

AC>BC

Neural hearing loss

99

Nasal mucosa is reddened and swollen in:

Viral rhinitis

100

Nasal mucosa is pale, bluish, or red in

Allergic rhinitis

101

Nasal polyps come from:

Middle meatus

102

Ulcers result from

Nasal use of cocaine

103

Local sinus tenderness with pain, fever, and nasal discharge suggests

Acute sinusitis

104

Connects lip with gingiva

Labial frenulum

105

Connects tongue to floor of the mouth

Lingual Frenulum

106

Swollen interdental papillae, redness of gingiva suggests:

Gingivitis

107

A benign midline lump of hard palate of roof of mouth

Torus palatinus

108

Asymmetric protrusion of tongue suggests

Lesion of CN XII (Hypoglossal)

109

Soft palate fails to rise and uvula deviates to opposite side

CN X paralysis

110

Tender lymph nodes suggest:

Inflammation

111

Hard/fixed lymph nodes suggest:

Malignancy

112

Tracheal deviation may signify

Thorax issues such as mediastinal mass, atelectasis, opr large pneumothorax

113

Elarged thyroid gland

Goiter