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315 - Nursing Support for Small Animals > Cardiovascular Conditions > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cardiovascular Conditions Deck (47)
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1

Acquired

Develop the condition, you are not born with it

2

Asymptomatic

Are said to be compensated - no clinical signs are present

3

Meaning of Decompensated

Clinical signs are present

4

When is congestive heart failure viewed

When they are decompensated

5

Left sided heart failure is

L = Lungs
Pulmonary oedema and congestion
Coughing, tachycardia, tachypnoea, exercise intolerance, fatigue, lethargy, weak pulse

6

Right sided

Blood back up into the vena cava,
ascites
Splenomegaly, hepatomegaly, ventral oedema,

7

Signs of congestive heart failure

tachycardia
Weak pulses
lethargy
exercise intolerance
cyanotic mucous membranes
ascites
hepatomegaly
splenomegaly
weight loss

8

Dogs Heart Rate

70-140bpm

9

Cats heart rate

100 - 200

10

Dogs TPR

38.3 - 39.2
70 - 140 beats per min
10 - 30 breaths per
water intake 40 - 60ml/kg/day
urine output - 1 - 2ml per kg/hr

11

Cat TPR and fluid

38.2 - 38.6 temp
100 - 200bpm
20-30 breaths per min
water intake - 40 -60ml/kg/24
urine output - 1 -2ml/kg/hr

12

Pulmonary Artery - location and carrier of?

Leaves right ventricle into lungs, then re-enters the left atrium. It carries de-oxygenated blood

13

Left sided heart disease effects what

Backs up the pulmonary vein - pulmonary oedema and congestion

14

Signs of Left sided heart disease

Dyspnea, coughing, tachypnea,
others include, exercise intolerance, weak pulse, lethargy

15

Signs of right sided heart disease

Splenomegaly
Hepatomegaly
ventral oedema
Jugular pulse

16

Nursing Care of the patient

Calm, quiet environment, reduce stress
O2 therapy
Cage rest, restricted exercise
Reduce obesity
Diet control - high biological value protein, low sodium
Sternal recumbency
Medication prescribed by VS

17

Endocardial disease - definition

Endo (inside) cardio (heart) -

18

Endocarditis definition

Inflammation of the endocardium

19

endocarditis - causes and clinical signs

Heart worm - dilofilraria
coughing

20

Endocardiosis definition

Disease of the heart, chronic fibrosis of the heart valves most common (LEAKY VALVE SYNDRONE)

21

Endocardiosis - symptoms, breed disposition

Fibrosis of the valves. Progressive condition.
Most common in dogs (pikenese, king Charles spaniel)
Pyrexi
Lethargy
Anorexia

22

DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY - Definition

Hypotrophic - Muscle walls of the heart chamber become thinner and loose their contractability.

23

Dilated Cardiomyopathy

Seen in large breed dogs - Dobermanns, Irish wolfhounds, Great Danes
Taurine in Cats

24

Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy - definition

Thickening of the muscle wall, reducing the size of ventricular luman and cardiac output. Interferes with relaxation of the heart preventing normal filling. Leads to decreased cardiac output and heart failure.

25

Hypertrophic explained

More common in cats
Hyperthyroidism - T4 test
Viral infection
hypertension possible causes

26

Myocardial disease / 2 types =

Hypertrophic and dilated cardiomypathy

27

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy =
clinical signs, breed disposition + diagnosis

Thickening of the muscle wall, reducing the size of the ventricular lumen and reduced cardiac output. Interferes with relaxation of the heart preventing normal filling. Leads to reduced cardiac output.
VERY COMMON IN CATS - HYPERTHYROIDISM
VIRAL INFECTION AND HYPERTENSION ARE POSSIBLE CAUSES.
Echocardiogram, thoracic x-ray (DV + R lat), ECG, Blood pressure, Blood T4.
Treat with cardiac relaxants, calcium beta blockers to slow the heart. Blood clots with pain relief, antithrombotic and vasodilators.

28

Dilated Cardiomyopathy
causes, clinical signs, diagnostic + treatment

Dilation of heart chambers = become thinner + loose contractibility.
Seen more in large breed dogs e.g. Dobermanns, Irish wolfhounds, Great Danes. Decreases blood flow causing congestive heart failure.
TAURINE DEFICIENCY IN CATS
Apparent acute on set
Anorexia, weight loss, reduced exercise intolerance, lethargy.
Left sided heart failure
Ascites
Heart murmur
Arrhythmias
Sudden death.

29

Taurine deficiency in cats can cause what type of heart failure

Dilated cardiomyopathy

30

Vena Cava enters into which heart chamber

Right atrium