Cardiovascular System 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Cardiovascular System 2 Deck (33):
1

Thromboangitis Obliterians (Buerger' Disease)

Chronic Inflam vascular occlusive disease of small arteries & veins. Most common in young males who smoke. Distal to prox. Pain, parasthesias , cold extremities, diminished temp sensation, fatigue and risk of ulceration/gangrene

2

Diabetic Angiopathy

Inapp elevation of blood glucose levels and accelerated artherosclerosis > could lead to ulcers, amps, gangrene

3

Raynauds Phenomenon

Episodic spasm of small arteries and arterioles abnorm vasoconstriction reflex exacerbated by cold or emo stress. affects largely females

4

Lymphedema

Chronic disorder w excessive accumulation of fluid d/t obstruction of lymphatics; soft tissue of arms/legs swell; primary is congenital and secondary is acquired

5

Stages of Lymphedema

Progressive Disease: 1=Reversible; limb is solf & pitting, swelling may increase overnight. 2= Spontaneously Irreversible; swelling w increase in fibrotic tissue, risk for infection. 3= Lymphostatic elephantiasis; extreme increase in swelling skin changes

6

Function of Pulmonary System

Respiration, delivers O to cardiovascular system; Removes CO2 and other by products from body

7

Primary Muscles of Inspiration

Diaphragm & intercostals w accessory muscles for deeper or more rapid inhalation

8

Bacterial PNA

Gram+ bacteria usually acquired by community, pneumococcal PNA is most common. Gram- bacteria usually develops in host who has an underlying condition , acute illness

9

Viral PNA VS Aspiration PNA

V= Inflam process caused by viral agents; A= Aspirated material causes an acute inflam reaction w/in lung; found in pts w dysphagia

10

Pneumocystis Pneumonia (PCP)

pulmonary infection caused by fungus; found in pts following transplant, neonates or those infected w HIV

11

SARS

Severe Acute Resp Syndrome, atypical resp illness caused by a coronavirus

12

TB

Airborne infection caused by mycobacterium tuberculosis; can be passed by sneezing/coughing, at risk if in immediate contact or have weak immune system. High risk for re-infection w/in 2 years. Young/old/IV drug users at risk.

13

TB Infection

Ppl who breathe in TB bacteria and become infected but fight off so cells become inactive but remain alive in bod. Asymptomatic, do not feel ill, not contagious, do not usually + skin test, can get real TB if no drugs admin-ed *takes 10-12 after exposure to detect infection

14

Sequelae of TB

Settles in lungs and can spread to cause kidney dysfunction, Rood's disease veterbral collapse, lesions in brain

15

COPD

Characterized by poor expiratory flow rates. Peripheral airways disease: inflam of distal conducting airways. Chronic Bronchitis: chronic inflam of tracheobronchial tree w cough/sputum producing lasting at least 3mo for 2 consecutive yrs. Emphysema: perm abnormal enlargement & destruction of air spaces distal to terminal bronchioles.

16

Emphysema

Imbalance between protease and antiprotease enzymes

17

Emphysema Sings/Symptoms

Dyspena on exertion, wheezing, prolonged expiratory phase, PLB, enlarged ant/post dimensions on chest wall, use of accessory muscles for breathing, forward leaning posture, chronic cough/sputum, could progress to lookimg emaciated

18

Asthma

Increased reactivity of trachea and bronchi to various stim (allergen, exercise, cold); Manifests by widespread narrowing of airways d/t inflam, smooth mus constriction and increased secretions

19

Asthma Signs/Symptoms

Wheezing, dyspena, chest pain, facial distress, non-productive cough, mucous

20

Pulmonary Edema

Excessive seepage of fluid from the pulmonary vascular system into interstital space

21

Pulmonary Emboli

Thrombus from peripheral venous circulation becomes embolic and lodges in pulmonary circulation - small dont always cause infarction

22

Pleural Effusion

Excessive fluid build up between the visceral and parietal pleura

23

Atelectasis

Collapsed or airless alveolar unit caused by hypoventilation 2nd to pain during ventilator cycle

24

Intermittent Claudication Rating Scale

Claudication= cramping pain in the leg is induced by exercise, typically caused by obstruction of the arteries; 0-4 w 0=no pain and 4=max, cannot continue

25

5-Grade Angina & Dyspena Scale

0-5 w 0=no angina/dyspena and 4=severe dyspena/most chest pain ever, cannot continue

26

Pulse/HR

Rhythmical throbbing of arterial wall as a result of each heartbeat. Influenced by force of contraction, vL/viscosity of blood, diameter/elasticity of vessels, emotion, exercises, blood temp and hormones. Normal rhythm taken for 30sec and abnorm for 1-2min

27

Pulse/HR Palpation Sites

Radial: most common; Temporal: sup/lat to eye; carotid: best reflects cardiac action; brachial, femoral, popliteal, pedal; Norm for adults 70 bpm>60 -100; Pediatric: 120 bpm> 70-170

28

Tachycardia vs Bradycardia

Greater than 100bpm, Less than 60bpm

29

Bruit

Abnorm sound or murmur; associated w athersclerosis

30

Norm Adult/Pediatric HR

Monitor at rest, pre/post. A=

31

Diaphoresis

Excessive swearing d/t decreased cardiac output

32

Skin Colors and Vascular Status

Cyanosis: bluish color d/t decreased cardiac output. Pallor: absence of rosy color in light skinned ppl, associated with PVD. Rubor: dependent redness with PVD.

33

Grading Scale for Edema

1-4 w 1=mild 1in pinch, depression remains