Functions of blood
Transport of cells and compounds
Regulate pH and electrocutes of interstitial fluids (fluid in between cells)
Limit blood loss through damaged vessels
Defends against pathogens, toxins
Absorb, distribute heat as part of temperature regulation
It’s the liquid of the blood. Made of 90 percent water. It’s about half of your blood. Made in the liver
Help stop bleeding by releasing fibrin which traps bloods cells and platelets form to stop bleeding.
Red blood cells
Called erythrocytes. Carry oxygen from lungs to cells in the body. Made mostly of hemoglobin. Takes CO2 and takes it back to lungs. About 5,000,000 RBCs in one drop of blood. Red blood cells are about 45% of whole blood volume.
White blood cells
Called leukocytes. Protects the body from germs and attack and destroy germs when they enter the body.
The cellular pathways by which the formed elements are produced.
Process for formation of red blood cells. Occurs mainly in the bone barrow.
Carries oxygen and CO2 and makes up 95% of red blood cells
Process that stops the loss of blood from a damaged vessel.
3 phases: vascular phase (local contraction of injured vessel) 2) platelet phase (platelets stick to damaged vessel wall)
3) coagulation phase (clotting factors in plasma form blood clot)
Why is O universal donor?
It has neither Anti A nor anti B antibodies. Type O can only receiver type O blood.
Why is AB universal receiver?
Cause it has both antibodies
What happens when the wrong blood is given?
The bodies attacks the wrong blood and it kills itself. The blood selves themselves attack each other.
Items transported in blood
Nutrients, water, oxygen, and waste products
Percentage of whole blood volume taken up by formed elements (mostly RBCs). “Crit”
- when someone has low red blood cells level
Receive blood from the capillaries and carry the blood to the heart. They are thinner than arteries. They have valves to prevent blood from flowing backwards.
Carry blood away from the heart. Walls are very thick. Under high pressure.
Very thin. Connect arteries and veins. Oxygen and nutrients pass through the walls of the capillaries to the organ cells. Waste products travel for organ cells, through the capillary walls, to the blood.
Layers of blood vessels
Tunica intima: inmost layer made of endothelial cells
Tunica media: middle layer (SMOOTH MUSCLE)
Tunica externa: connective tissue
Why so left ventricular myocardium thicker than the right?
Because the left takes more force because it has to pump harder through all the vessels.
Sequence of blood flow in the heart, be able to diagram
Blood flow to the heart. It needs lots of blood flow because it is always working.
Movement of blood from the heart, to the lungs, no back to the heart again
Movement of blood through the tissues of the heart
Supplies nourishment to all of the tissue located throughout the body, except for the heart and lungs
What does the right atria and ventricle do?
Right atria: receives blood from the body that is low in oxygen and high in carbon dioxide which sends it to the right ventricle
Right ventricle: pumps oxygen poor blood to the lungs
What does the left atria and ventricle do?
Left atria: oxygen rich blood moves from the lungs into the left atrium
Left ventricle: pumps oxygen rich blood to all parts of the body
Superior and inferior venae cavae (only to right side)
Large veins carry systematic blood to right atrium
Pulmonary arteries and veins
Pulmonary veins carry blood to left atria
Pulmonary veins take oxy blood back to the heart
The pulmonary artery is the vessel transporting de-oxygenated blood from the right ventricle to the lungs
The aorta carries blood from the left ventricle to the body
The septum prevents oxygen-rich and oxygen-poor blood from mixing in the heart
The valves prevent the backward flow of blood
Coronary arteries supply blood to the heart muscle.
Layers of the heart
Epicardium: outermost layer, serous membrane
Myocardium: middle layer, thick muscle layer
Endocardium: inner lining of pumping chambers
Coronary circulation meets heavy demands of myocardium for oxygen, nutrients
When one of the coronary arteries becomes blocked, the result is a myocardial infarction (heart attack) caused by necrosis of the heart tissue that is deprived of blood flow
Types of cardiac cells
Contractile cells: provide the lumping action
Cells of the conducting system: generate and spread the action potential (pacemaker cells and conducting cells)