the upper part of the human body, or the front or upper part of the body of an animal, typically separated from the rest of the body by a neck, and containing the brain, mouth, and sense organs.
a passage or opening leading to the interior of the body.
Example: “the urethral meatus”
a cavity within a bone or other tissue, especially one in the bones of the face or skull connecting with the nasal cavities.
a series of vertebrae extending from the skull to the small of the back, enclosing the spinal cord and providing support for the thorax and abdomen; the backbone.
any of two bony protuberances by which muscles are attached to the upper part of the thigh bone.
A nodule or small eminence, especially one on a bone, for attachment of a tendon
a compact head of a structure, in particular a dense, flat cluster of small flowers or florets, as in plants of the daisy family.
the shaft or central part of a long bone.
Epiphysis (distal and proximal)
pertaining to, consisting of, or resembling the medulla of an organ or the medulla oblongata.
A central canal and the concentric osseous lamellae encircling it, occurring in compact bone. Also called haversian system.
The central canal, also known as ependymal canal, is the cerebrospinal fluid-filled space that runs longitudinally through the length of the entire spinal cord. The central canal is continuous with the ventricular system of the brain.
a cavity or depression, especially in bone.
The cartilage covering the articular surfaces of the bones forming a synovial joint. Also called arthrodial cartilage, diarthrodial cartilage, investing cartilage.
Cortical bone is dense and compact. It forms the outer layer of the bone.
Spongy bone is a network of irregularly-shaped sheets and spikes of bone (trabeculae). The trabeculae are only a few cell layers thick. The spaces between the trabeculae contain red or yellow marrow, depending on a person’s age and on which bone it is. The marrow in these images is red marrow.
a soft fatty substance in the cavities of bones, in which blood cells are produced (often taken as typifying strength and vitality).
a dense layer of vascular connective tissue enveloping the bones except at the surfaces of the joints.
Anatomy. a rounded protuberance at the end of a bone, serving as a place of attachment for ligaments, tendons, and muscles.
a hollow space or a pit in a tooth, most commonly produced by caries. A cavity may be artificially made to support dental restorations.
a comb or tuft of feathers, fur, or skin on the head of a bird or other animal.
One of the small, polished plane surfaces of a cut gem
One of these spaces, covered by membrane, between the bones of the fetal or young skull
An opening, orifice, or short passage, as in a bone or in the integument of the ovule of the plant
Fovea: In the eye, a tiny pit located in the macula of the retina that provides the clearest vision of all. Only in the fovea are the layers of the retina spread aside to let light fall directly on the cones, the cells that give the sharpest image. Also called the central fovea or fovea centralis.
Where is new bone formed in a long bone?
Under the growth plate cartilage near the end of the bone
What type of cells are responsible for dissolving excess bone?
Describe bone modeling
New bone grows under the growth plate (and on sides of diaphysis. Bone is resolved to to remain shape. The process is continued.
What would happen if bone was not resorted during the process?
It would be too thick and too dense and lose its shape. It would be mineralized cartilage instead of normal bone.
What specifically occurs within the growth plate to create bone growth?
The cartilage cells, chondrocytes, divide in a layer and secrete chronocyte collagen. They get further embedded into the growth plate. Cells live in columns. Then they stop moving, proliferating, and they get bigger hypertrophy.
Explain the effects of estrogen on bone growth
Necessary for fusion of growth plates
Explain the regulatory role of parathyroid hormone
Keeps the fiat chronocytes in the proliferating phase and delays the hypertrophied phase.
Hey the process called endochrondial ossification?
The growth of plates near the chrono plate or vertebrae?
Sketch a closer look at growth plate and label cells
Okay look at notes
What cell forms flat bones?
How does thing compare to growth in long bones?
One grows up and the other grows sideways and inward.
Compare woven bone and lamellar bone
Woven bone is the early years bone, and as you grow older it is dissolved and new osteoblasts form a more mature lamellar bone
Why is this process called intramembraneous ossification?
Inside the membrane renewal and creation
What is the role of osteoclasts? Why are they so large?
The circulate blood in the vessels. Pre-osteoclasts enlarge to infuse into mature osteoclasts. Bind into bone matrix to resort bone
What is the fate of osteoclasts after about two weeks?
What is osteoid secreted by osteoblasts?
Osteoid- used to mineralized and fill the cavity
What are two possible fates of osteoblasts after about 3-4 months?
Turn into osteocytes, lining cells.mthe rest undergo apoptosis.