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Flashcards in Cardiovascular Training Deck (31)
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1

What is the term for the percentage of end diastolic volume that is pumped from the ventricles?

Ejection fraction (%)

2

What is the end diastolic volume?

Volume of blood in each ventricle during diastole (end of filling)

3

What is stroke volume?

Amount of blood ejected from a ventricle in a single heartbeat (mL)

4

Which gender has a larger stroke volume?

Males

5

Is stroke volume higher or lower in untrained individuals?

Lower

6

Stroke volume increases until what point of VO2 max?

40-50%

7

What is cardiac output?

Amount of blood pumped per minute (stroke volume X heart rate)

8

What is the relationship between exercise intensity and cardiac output?

Direct

9

What is the relationship between exercise intensity and heart rate?

Direct

10

How can one's VO2 max be increased?

Training

11

What is VO2 max?

Maximal amount of oxygen that can be taken in and utilized per kG/min

12

What unit of measurement is used to rate the amount of energy used in different activities?

METs (metabolic equivalents)

13

What is EPOC?

Excess post-exercise oxygen consumption

14

What is the respiratory quotient (RQ)?

Ratio of the volume of CO2 expired to the volume of O2 consumed (VCO2/VO2)

15

Which macronutrients are associated with the RQ?

Fats and carbs (proteins left out of calculation)

16

Which part of blood pressure should rise steadily with exercise intensity?

Systolic

17

Diastolic pressure increase of greater than 15 mmHg is indicative of what?

Possible coronary artery disease

18

What is the maximal safe systolic elevation during exercise?

220 mmHg

19

What is the exception to the rule for maximal safe systolic elevation during exercise?

Top athletes may approach 250 mmHg

20

How is the lactate threshold different in untrained individuals and endurance athletes?

Untrained = 55% VO2 max
Athletes = 70% VO2 max

21

What physiological changes help endurance athletes change their lactate threshold?

Increased mitochondria and capillary density

22

What are two ways in which the lactate threshold can be monitored or assessed?

Talk test, Borg scale

23

Are anaerobic and lactate thresholds the same?

NO

24

What is the anaerobic threshold?

Ventilatory breakpoint where excess carbon dioxide is expired

25

Which hormone decreases with exercise?

Insulin

26

Which hormones are increased with exercise?

Cortisol, catecholamines, endorphins, growth hormone, testosterone

27

Increases in growth hormone and testosterone are more notable with what kind of exercise?

Resistance

28

Why does training lead to increase stroke volume at both rest and max?

Better contraction and increased heart size

29

How can training affect cholesterol?

Increases HDL and total blood cholesterol may decrease

30

Multifidi have a higher concentration of which muscle fibers?

Type I