Flashcards in Exercise Science Principles Deck (123)
Which muscles are weakened according to the cross syndrome in the pelvic region?
Gluteus maximus and abdominal muscles
Which muscles are weakened according to the cross syndrome in the shoulder region?
Deep neck flexors and scapular stabilizers, retractors, and depressors
Which muscles are tightened according to the cross syndrome in the pelvic region?
Iliopsoas and erector spinae muscles
Which muscles are uninhibited/overactive according to the cross syndrome in the shoulder region?
Upper trapezius, levator scapulae, and pectoral group muscles
What is the primary goal in rehab of muscle dysfunction?
Retrain control (NOT incase strength)
What is the term for the point of the exact center around which the body freely rotates and the point where all weight is equal on all sides?
Center of gravity (COG)
At approximately what vertebral level is the center of gravity?
S2 (slightly higher in men than women)
What is the term for the area of contact between the body and the supporting surface?
Base of support
The line of gravity must fall within what measurement?
Base of support
What is the imaginary line that runs through the center of gravity called?
Line of gravity
In general, how is balance maintained and stability achieved?
When COG remains over base of support
When the applied (muscle) force is less than the resistive force, is the ratio or the force moment arm to the resistive force moment arm greater or less than 1.0?
When the applied (muscle) force is greater than the resistive force, is the ratio or the force moment arm to the resistive force moment arm greater or less than 1.0?
Which ratio is a mechanical disadvantage: when the ratio of the force moment arm to the resistive force moment arm is greater or less than 1.0?
Less than 1.0
How is mechanical advantage calculated in terms of force and resistance?
Force divided by resistance (greater than 1.0 = better mechanical advantage)
What term is the ability of a force to cause rotation?
Do we see more torque with a longer or shorter moment arm (lever)?
Which class lever has the fulcrum between the force and resistance arms?
Cervical extension is an example of what kind of lever?
Seesaw, scissors, prying/crowbar are all examples of what kind of lever?
What is the benefit of having the fulcrum nearer to the force?
Speed and ROM
What is the benefit of having the fulcrum nearer to the resistance?
What is the benefit of having the fulcrum in the middle?
Where does the resistance lie with a 2nd class lever?
Between the force and the fulcrum
Calf raises are an example of which class lever?
Wheelbarrow, nutcracker, and push ups are examples of which class lever?
What are the benefits of a 2nd class lever?
Mechanical advantage, move large resistance with little force (increases force)
What is the disadvantage to a 2nd class lever?
Small range of motion
Which class lever has the force between the resistance and the fulcrum?