Care of the Elderly Flashcards Preview

Phase 3A > Care of the Elderly > Flashcards

Flashcards in Care of the Elderly Deck (60)
Loading flashcards...
1

Define dementia

Progressive global cognitive impairment with normal consciousness

2

Common types of dementia

Alzheimers
Lewy body
Frontotemporal
Vascular
Parkinsons
Normal pressure hydrocephalus
Depression
Korsakoffs

3

Rare types of dementia

HIV
CJD
Syphilis
Space occupying lesions
Hypothyroid
B12 deficiency
Malnutrition

4

What to ask about for dementia

Age
Onset
Progression
Memory
Personality
Thinking
Planning
Judgement
Language
Visuospatial skills
Concentration
Social behaviour
Confusion
Wandering
Falls
Head injury
Tremor
Mood
Sleep
Delusions
Hearing
Sight

5

PMH for Dementia

Seizures
CVA/TIA

6

DH for Dementia

Regular medications
Sleeping tablets
Anticholinergics

7

FH for Dementia

Dementia
Neurological problems

8

SH for Dementia

Effect on work, relationships and social activities
ADLs
Finances
Support at home

9

What tests would you do for Dementia

MMSE, Abbreviated mental test score, full exam

10

Investigations for Dementia

Full bloods
CXR, CT Brain
EEG, LP, ECG

11

Initial management for Dementia

Refer to neuro, rule out reversible/treatable causes, ensure MDT to support patient's needs

12

Describe Alzheimers Dementia

Slowly progressive loss of memory, with later loss of language, executive or visuospatial functions

13

Which drug may benefit moderate AD

Anticholinesterase inhibitors (Donepezil)

14

Describe Vascular Dementia

Impairment of memory and at least one other cognitive domain. IN THE PRESENCE OF VASCULAR RISK FACTRS/ ISCHAEMIA ON IMAGING

15

Describe Lewy Body Dementia

Early loss of executive function with HALLUCINATIONS and fluctuating levels of consciousness. Memory loss is a later feature.

16

Describe Frontotemporal dementia

Prominent and early LANGUAGE LOSS and also loss of social functioning/disinhibition. May be a younger age group

17

Name three reversible causes of dementia

Sub dural haematoma
Normal pressure hydrocephalus
Korsakoff syndrom

18

What are the categories of the Mini Mental State Exam

Orientation
Registration
Attention and arithmetic
Recall
Language
Executive function

19

Describe subdural haematoma dementia

Dementia and focal neurology. Elderly, atrophic brains. Trauma in history. Ix CT. Tx Evacuate

20

Describe normal pressure hydrocephalus dementia

Dementia, gait disturbance and urinary incontinence with hydrocephalus on CT and normal CSF opening pressure

21

Causes of normal pressure hydrocephalus

Idiopathic (50%)
Meningitis
Trauma
Subarachnoid haemorrhage

22

Normal pressure hydrocephalus treatment

ventriculo peritoneal shunt

23

Describe Korsakoffs syndrome dementia

Amnesia and confabulation seen in thiamine deficiency (eg alcoholism). Treatment thiamine (B1) replacement

24

Define delerium

Acute onset of disordered cognition with attentional deficits typically involvalves changes in arousal and may be associated with hallucinations

25

Clinical features of delerium

Globally impaired cognition, perception and consciousness
Marked memory
Disordered/ disorientated thinking
Sleep/wake cycle reversal

26

Describe hyperactive delerium

Restlessness
Mood lability
Agitation
Aggression

27

Describe hypoactive delerium

Patient becomes slow and withdrawn

28

What is the third type of delerium

Mixed

29

Risk factors for delerium

>65yo, dementia, hip fracture, acute illness, psychological agitation eg pain

30

Causes of delerium

Sugery
Systemic infection
Intracranial infection or head injury
Drug withdrawal
Alcohol withdrawal
Metabolic
Hypoxia
Vascular event
Thiamine, B12 deficiency