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Flashcards in Cartilage (Bolender) Deck (8)

What are the (3) recognized types of cartilage?

  1. Hyaline
  2. Elastic
  3. Fibrocartilage


Classify the following anatomical sites according to the general type of cartilage found there:

  1. Nose
  2. Auricles
  3. External auditory meatus
  4. Auditory tube
  5. Larynx
  6. Epiglottis
  7. Trachea
  8. Bronchi
  9. Intervertebral disk
  10. Bone endplates
  11. Pubic symphysis
  12. Articular disks
  13. Synovial articulations
  14. Tendon insertions

  1. H
  2. E
  3. E
  4. E
  5. H and E
  6. E
  7. H
  8. H
  9. F
  10. H
  11. F
  12. F
  13. A
  14. F


What is the chief type of collagen found in cartilage?

Type II collagen


Name the types of collagens found in cartilage and describe the role of each

  1. Type II: most abundant, provides mechanical stability for the cartilage matrix
  2. Type VI: links the chondrocyte to the cartilage matrix
  3. Type IX: stabilizes the type II collagen network by facilitating interaction with proteoglycans
  4. Type X: associated with hypertrophic regions in cartilage, arranging fibrils into a 3D lattice suitable for calcification
  5. Type XI: regulates Type II collagen fibril size


What is aggrecan?

The predominant proteoglycan monomer found in the cartilage ground substance


How is cartilage nourished?

by diffusion


What is the tidemark

The tidemark is a feature of articular cartilage. It is a thick band of mineralized matrix separating the deepest layer (adjacent to subchondrial bone) from the three unmineralized zones above.


Why is repair of cartilage difficult?

  • Injury that does not cross the tidemark usually does not heal due to lack of influx of chondrogenic cells, fibrin clot, or growth factors.
  • Injury extending into the bone usually does not heal completely or restore the composition and mechanical properties of the original catrilage.