What are the (3) recognized types of cartilage?
Classify the following anatomical sites according to the general type of cartilage found there:
- External auditory meatus
- Auditory tube
- Intervertebral disk
- Bone endplates
- Pubic symphysis
- Articular disks
- Synovial articulations
- Tendon insertions
- H and E
What is the chief type of collagen found in cartilage?
Type II collagen
Name the types of collagens found in cartilage and describe the role of each
- Type II: most abundant, provides mechanical stability for the cartilage matrix
- Type VI: links the chondrocyte to the cartilage matrix
- Type IX: stabilizes the type II collagen network by facilitating interaction with proteoglycans
- Type X: associated with hypertrophic regions in cartilage, arranging fibrils into a 3D lattice suitable for calcification
- Type XI: regulates Type II collagen fibril size
What is aggrecan?
The predominant proteoglycan monomer found in the cartilage ground substance
How is cartilage nourished?
What is the tidemark
The tidemark is a feature of articular cartilage. It is a thick band of mineralized matrix separating the deepest layer (adjacent to subchondrial bone) from the three unmineralized zones above.
Why is repair of cartilage difficult?