Upper Extremity Clinical Correlation Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Upper Extremity Clinical Correlation Deck (48)
1

Identify

Pancoast tumor

2

Identify

Fabella

3

Identify

calcific tendonitis

4

The calcifications in the attached image are commonly found in what syndrome?

Crest Syndrome

5

Identify

Soft tissue hemangiomas

6

Identify

Lipohemarthrosis

7

In which joint type is effusion generally most easily identified?

knee

8

Identify

Jones fracture

(fracture of the base of the 5th metatarsal)

9

Identify

Rolando fracture

(base of the 1st metacarpal @ CMC joint)

10

Identify

intertrochanteric fracture

11

Identify

avuslion fracture

12

Identify

Segond fracture

13

Identify

tophi (gout)

14

Name (6) modalities commonly used for musculoskeletal imaging

  1. Radiographs (plain film x-ray)
  2. Fluoroscopy
  3. Ultrasound
  4. Computed tomography (CT)
  5. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
  6. Nuclear imaging (ex: PET)

15

Name and describe (3) major categories of fracture

  1. Acute: due to sudden impact or force exceeds the strength of bone
  2. Stress: due to repetitive submaximal stresses
  3. Pathologic: due to otherwise normal stresses on diseased bone

16

Give (3) major examination signs of fracture

Deformity

Bony point tenderness

Pain with loading -> best identified with indirect loading

17

18

Name (4) indirect loading tests for fracture

  1. axial
  2. bump test
  3. hop test
  4. fulcrum test

19

Why might use of NSAIDs be contraindicated in bone fracture?

NSAIDs may interfere with prostaglandin roles in bone healing

20

Name three bones that are especially vulnerable to avascular necrosis in the event of a fracture

  1. Scaphoid
  2. Talus
  3. Femoral head and neck

21

The femoral head and neck are chiefly supplied by what vessel?

medial circumflex femoral artery

22

What is post-traumatic arthritis?

Arthritis developed following dislocation, usually chronic dislocation

23

Name some historical (Hx) and examination (Ex) features found with arthritis

Hx:

  1. stiffness, especially after rest
  2. progressive pain, worse especially after use

Ex:

  1. Joint line tenderness
  2. deformity
  3. mild swelling
  4. pain evoked on passive and active movement

24

Name (3) major risk factors for capsulitis

  1. Injury
  2. Diabetes
  3. Thyroid disease

25

Name and describe the three (3) major phases of capsulitis

  1. Freeze: painful with decreasing range of motion (ROM)
  2. Frozen: non-painful with stable/minimal ROM
  3. Thawing: non-painful with increasing range of motion

26

Identify

Long head biceps tendon rupture

27

What are the key considerations when weighing treatment options for musculotendinous ruptures?

  • Impact of missing muscle
  • Presence of alternative muscles
  • Functional requirements of the patient

28

Define: enthesopathy

Disorder of the bony attachment of a muscle or tendon

29

Define: tendinitis

Acute inflammation of a tendon

traumatic: pull or blow

30

Define tendinosis

Chronic degeneration of a tendon

possibly due to repetitive submaximal irritation

31

What is a strain?

What are its symptoms?

Damage to muscle from overstretching, usually during eccentric loading of the muscle

Sx: stiffness, bruising, swelling, soreness

32

33

Acromioclavicular (AC) sprain...

Give the common etiology, presentation, and exam findings

Etiology:

  • fall directly onto the shoulder

Presentation:

  • pain with overhead motions
  • visible deformity of the superior shoulder

Exam findings:

  • pain and deformity at AC joint
  • positive cross-chest test (cross-body adduction)
  • painful abduction to >150º

34

35

AC injury grading:

AC and CC tear

Grade III

36

AC injury grading

AC tear with CC injury

Grade II

37

AC injury grading:

AC injury with no CC involvement

Grade I

38

Define sprain

what are its primary symptoms?

ligamentous damage from overloading

Sx: instability or laxity, swelling

39

Sprain grading:

partial tear, significant laxity and pain

Grade II

40

Sprain grading:

microscopic damage, no increased laxity, increased pain with stress or load

Grade I

41

Sprain grading:

Complete tear, significant laxity, pain that may resolve following acute phase

Grade III

42

Which nerve is generally at greatest risk following an anterior shoulder dislocation?

Axillary n.

43

Define dislocation

Complete displacement of the joint

44

Define subluxation

transient, partial joint displacement

45

Define laxity

"looseness" of the joint

may be normal variant

46

What is the most common type/direction of shoulder dislocation?

Anterior (90%)

47

What is (are) the common etiologies of anterior shoulder dislocation?

  1. Direct blow to the posterior shoulder
  2. Forced extension, abduction, and external rotation of the arm

48

What is Simian (Ape) hand?

Thenar wasting associated with carpal tunnel syndrome