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Flashcards in Causes of the Vietnam War Deck (17)
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1

Which country gave aid to North Vietnam?

China

2

Why was the USA concerned about China's involvement?

China had become a communist country in 1949 - the USA were afraid that Vietnam would become communist too, setting off the "Domino Effect".

3

What is the Domino Effect?

A theory which suggested if one country fell to communism, all the countries surrounding it would also fall.

4

Where was Vietnam divided?

Along the 17th Parallel.

5

Who was involved in SEATO (South East Asian Treaty Organisation) , and what did it do?

USA, France, UK, New Zealand, Australia, Pakistan, the Philippines and Thailand. They agreed to act together to stop communism spreading in Southeast Asia.

6

Why were the French involved in Vietnam?

Vietnam had been a French Colony, but The Vietnamese, led by Ho Chi Minh, wanted Vietnamese independence.

7

How much money did the USA give to France's war in Vietnam?

They were paying 80% of the war costs by 1954.

8

When did Diem become Prime Minister?

1954

9

What were the problems with Diem's government?

- There were many communists in Vietnam who controlled some northern areas.
- Other groups had there own armies
- Diem gave jobs to Catholics and family members.
- he had little respect for peasants in the villages, and did not try to gain their support. Therefore they were mostly run by corrupt officials.
- In 1956 Diem refused to hold elections.

10

What religious conflict took place during Diem's government?

Diem was Catholic, and violently persecuted the Buddhist population.

11

How and Why did Eisenhower help Diem to keep power?

Eisenhower sent more military advisers to train the South Vietnamese army (ARVN). He wanted the ARVN to gain control and for the USA to send in as few troops as possible. He believed supporting Diem was the best way to do this.

12

What did VC or Vietcong stand for?

Vietnamese Communists.

13

Diem was based in the city. Anti-Vietcong groups targeted villages. Why did this work?

Diem's city-based government looked down on the villagers and did little to gain their support - yet most of Vietnam was made up of villages. By the end of 1960, less than 50% of South Vietnam was under Diem's control.

14

What happened to President Diem in 1963?

He was overthrown and killed by his own troops (this was supported by the USA).

15

What were Eisenhower, Kennedy and Johnson’s aims in Vietnam?

• Set up a democratic government in South Vietnam
• Keep South Vietnam separate to stop it becoming communist
• Stop the war escalating/avoiding nuclear war
• Winning over the hearts and minds of the South Vietnamese people

16

How did President Eisenhower get involved in Vietnam between 1954 and 1960?

• Sent equipment and military advisors to South Vietnam even though he could have stopped involvement after the French lost.
• Prevented elections from taking place in South Vietnam, as he feared the Communists might win.

• Supported Diem with about $1.6 billion.
• Domino theory. Eisenhower feared that if one country fell to communism others like Laos and Cambodia would follow. This led him to set up SEATO.

17

How did President Kennedy get involved in Vietnam between 1961 and 1963?

• Increased the number of advisers to more than 16,000 by 1963.
• Allowed Diem to be assassinated and supported his replacement by anti-communist army generals.
• Used counter insurgency tactics to isolate the VC
• Used the Green Berets but they found it hard to win over the hearts and minds of the VC
• Strategic hamlets programme to stop VC from recruiting peasants. 5,000 built by 1962.