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Flashcards in CBC Deck (79)
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1

Components of a CBC

1. WBC
2. Hgb
3. HCt
4. PLT

2

How do we check Hemoglobin?

1. Red cells broken down to get hemoglobin in solution
2. Free hemoglobin exposed to cyanide to form cyanmethemoglobin
3. By shining light (540 nm) through the soln the concentration of hemoglobin can be determined.

3

Normal Hemoglobin Range for Men

14-18 mg/dL

4

Normal Hemoglobin Range for Women

12-16 mg/dL

5

What is the "Hematocrit"?

Relative volume of blood occupied by erythrocytes.

6

Normal Hematocrit Levels

41-52%

7

What is the normal Hemoglobin/Hematocrit Ratio?

1:3

8

How much should a hematocrit rise after one unit of blood is transfused?

3 points

9

DDx for Anemia

1. IDA
2. Bleeding
3. B12 Deficiency
4. Folate Deficiency
5. Chronic Disease
6. Leukemia
7. Sickle Cell Disease
8. Genetics?
9. Myelodysplastic Syndrome

10

How do you evaluate a patient with suspected anemia?

- Determine Acuity
- Look at patient FIRST, not labs
- Past records will show old baselines.

11

If someone has been chronically anemic and is of Mediterranean descent and has an MCV of 60, what disease process should you be thinking of?

Thalassemia

12

Three potential CAUSES of anemia

1. Decreased Production
2. Increased Destruction
3. Blood Loss

13

What can be a Decreased Production cause of Anemia?

1. Nutritional Deficiency
2. Bone Marrow Failure
3. Hormone Deficiency
4. Epo failure (Kidney failure where epo is made)

Examples:
- B12 Deficiency
- Folate Deficiency
- Aplastic Anemia
- Leukemia
- Myelodysplastic Syndrome

14

What can be a Increased Destruction cause of Anemia?

1. Inherited Hemolytic Anemia
2. Acquired Hemolytic Anemia

15

Examples of Acquired Hemolytic Anemia

- Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia
- Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura-Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome
- Malaria
- Mechanical Valve Replacement

16

Examples of Inherited Hemolytic Anemia

- Hereditary Spherocytosis
- Sick Cell Disease
- Thalassemia Major

17

This is a condition where RBS are like little spheres instead of biconcave discs and therefore do not go through the vessels well that can cause rupture.

Hereditary Spherocytosis

18

What can cause Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura-Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (TTP/HUS)?

Antibiotics and some Viral Illnesses

19

Most common cause of Anemia?

Blood Loss

20

What can be a Blood Loss cause of Anemia?

1. Traumatic or Apparent Bleeding
2. Occult Bleeding
3. Iatrogenic

21

Examples of Traumatic or Apparent Bleeding

- Melena
- Hematemesis
- Menometrorrhagia

22

Examples of Occult Bleeding

- Colonic Polyp
- Carcinoma

23

Examples of Iatrogenic Cause of Bleeding

- Blood Draws (esp. in infants)
- Dialysis
- Surgery

24

What is MCV?

Mean Corpuscular Volume

An indicator of how big the RBC is (macrocytic vs. normocytic vs. microcytic)

25

Normal Value of MCV?

80-98

26

This is the term for an MCV >98.

Macrocytic Anemia

27

Causes of Macrocytic Anemia

- B12 Deficiency
- Folate Deficiency
- Drugs
- Release of Immature Cells (from Bone Marrow)
- Cirrhosis
- Hypothyroidism
- EtOH
- Multiple Myeloma

28

RBCs should be the same size as a __________.

Neutrophil

29

This is the term for an MCV < 80.

Microcytic Anemia

30

What is the #1 cause of Microcytic Anemia

Iron Deficiency