CC: B Vitamins Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in CC: B Vitamins Deck (24)
1

What is Vitamin B1?

Thiamine

2

What enzymes absolutely require Thiamine/B1?

PDH (pyruvate to A-CoA)
alpha-Ketoglutarate Dehydrogenase (Step 4 TCA Cycle a-KG to Succinyl-CoA)
Transketolase (used TWICE in HMPS/Pentose Pathway/Phosphoglucanate)

3

What results from Thiamine/B1 deficiency?

BeriBeri Dry (CNS encephalopathy + psychosis)
BeriBeri Wet (Cardiovascular)

Cats, Ruminants, Horses DRY BeriBeri
Pigs WET BeriBeri

4

Why do Cats have a particular predisposition towards Thiamine/B1 deficiency?

Raw/undercooked fish contain high enough levels of THIAMINASE to affect the kitties

5

What was discussed as a reason for Ruminants to have a thiamine deficiency?

Certain plants found country-wide contain THIAMINASE.
Bracken Fern and Horsetails in particular.

6

What do you see in Horses with Thiamine/B1 deficiency?

CNS signs. Anorexia, weight loss, incoordination, *hind limb abduction* (due to lack of ATP for nerves).

Can die within 2-10 days.

7

What is Vitamin B2?

Riboflavin

8

What is Riboflavin/B2 utilized in the body for?

FAD (flavin adenine dinucleotide)

9

Does Riboflavin/B2 have any identifying characteristics?

YES. Its ORANGE-YELLOW color.

10

How would an animal with a Riboflavin/B2 deficiency present as?

Poor growth, failure to thrive, weakness, ataxia, dermatitis, alopecia

Skin problems, and issues with energy.

11

What is Vitamin B3?

Niacin

12

What is Niacin/B3 utilized in the body for?

NAD(H) and NADP(H)

13

What happens to the body in a Niacin/B3 deficiency?

Pellegra 4D's:
Dermatitis (skin), Diarrhea (GI), Dementia (CNS), Death

Canine BLACK TONGUE --related to Skin issues

14

What is Vitamin B4?

DOESN'T EXIST SUCKA!!

15

What is Vitamin B5?

Pantothenic Acid

16

What is Pantothenic Acid/B5 utilized in the body for?

Acetyl Coenzyme A

17

What is Vitamin B6?

Pyroxidine

18

What is Pyroxidine/B6 utilized in the body for?

Neurotransmitters, AA transferases (gluconeogenesis), and glycogen phosphorylase

19

What is Vitamin B7?

Biotin

20

What is Biotin/B7 utilized in the body as?

Pyruvate Carboxylase -- the first enzyme in the gluconeogenic pathway

These are essential for Gluconeogenesis

21

Where does Biotin/B7 come from?

pretty much everywhere

22

What happens in times of Biotin/B7 deficiency?

Deficiencies are Rare due to it's widespread nature, but:

Decreased appetite & growth, Dermatitis, Alopecia, weak nails, achromatrichia (different colored hoof), Hepatic stenosis, Ketoacidosis, Hyperammonemia, Coma, Death

23

Since Biotin/B7 is so widespread, how could we see a deficiency?

Egg Whites contain AVIDIN. Avidin binds Biotin avidly.

So beware a diet with high levels of RAW Egg Whites.

24

What would be the effect of a high Carb diet on an Thiamine/B1 deficient canine patient?

LACTIC ACIDOSIS

Thiamine is essential for the action of PDH and Alpha-Ketoglutarate Dehydrogenase SO the TCA Cycle would be screwed, along with the ETC.

Pyruvate would backup and the body, in an attempt to extract energy and regenerate NAD+ (to be able to continue glycolysis), would convert Pyruvate to Lactate (lactic acid) ==> LACTIC ACIDOSIS