Flashcards in CCDM18, Control Of Communicable Diseases In Man, Topic Anthrax, Choleara, Mumps, Scabies, Schistosomiasis, Smallpox Deck (54):
What nicknames exsist for anthrax?
Woolsorters Disease & Ragpicker Disease
What acute bacterial disease usually affect the skin, but may rarely involve the oropharynx, mediastinum or intestinal tract?
What are the symptoms for cutaneous anthrax?
Itching of exposed skin first, followed by lesions that become papular, then vesicular and in 2-6 days developes into depressed black eschar.
True or false? Pain is usual when concerning anthrax, and is not due to oedema or secondary infection
False. Pain is unusual and if present, is due to secondary infection.
What are the most common sites for anthrax infections?
Hands, forearms, and head
Anthrax has been confused with what disease?
Untreated anthrax can cause the fatality rate of ____ and ____% ?
5 and 20
Initial symptoms of inhalation anthrax are mild and nonspecific and may include?
Fever, malasia and miod cough or chest pain.
Acute symptoms of inhalation anthrax include?
Respiratory distress, X-ray evidence of mediastinal widening.
Fever and shock follow inhalation anthrax in ___ to ___ days, with death shortly thereafter.
3 to 5 days
Which type of anthrax is more rare, cutaneous, inhalation, or intestinal?
Anthrax cultures leave what color stain?
Polychrome methylene (M'Fadyean)blue
What is the causative agent for anthrax?
What are the characteristics of of bacillus anthracis?
Gram-postive, encapsulated, spore forming, nonmotile rod
True or false? The anthrax spores of B. anthracis are the infectious agent.
True or false? Anthrax is primarily a disease of herbivores
Articles of soil contaminated with anthrax may stay contaminated for how long?
Antibiotherapy sterilizes an anthrax skin lesion in how many hours?
What does the US military reccomend for the treatment of inhalation anthrax?
parenteral ciprofloxacin or doxycycline (duration of treatment is not defined)
What is the treatment for cutaneous anthrax?
Penicillin for 5-7 days.\nTetracyclines, erythromycin and chloramphenicol are also effective
what is the incubation period for anthrax?
1 to 7 days, although incubation periods up to 60 days are possible. in the russian outbreak incubation periods lasted 43 days.
Where are genital infections of chlamydial manifested in both sexes?
males primarily as a urethritis, and in females as a cervical
infection may be found in how many men?
1-25% of men
In the female, the clinical manifestations of chlamydial infections may be similar to what other disease?
Up to what percentage of women are asymptomatic with chlamydial infections?
Incubation period for chlamydial infections?
Screening of sexually active adolescent girls should be done how often?
Treatment for Chlamydial infections?
Doxycycline 100 mg twice daily for 7 days
In males, gonococcal infection
presents as an acute purulent discharge from the anterior urethra with
dysuria within how many days?
2-7 days after exposure.
In females and homosexual males what types of gonococcal infection are common?
pharyngeal and anorectal infections are common
N. gonorrhoeae also known as?
What is the most serious but not the most frequent infectious
Gonococcal infection treatments are?
ceftriaxone IM (125 mg single dose), cefixime PO
(400 mg single dose), ciprofloxacin PO (500 mg single dose),
floxacin PO (400 mg single dose) or levofloxacin PO (250 mg
Conjunctivitis occurs in newborns and rarely in adults,
with resultant blindness if not rapidly and adequately treated in what infection
Mumps common symptoms
fever, headache, muscle aches, tiredness, loss of appetite swollen and tender salivary glands
Mumps are known for
puffy cheeks and swollen jaw
Mumps symptoms last for
16 to 18 days after infection
Mumps is contagious by
coughing, sneezing , or talking, sharing cups/spoons
Mumps complications are
inflammation of testicles (orchitis) in males
mumps can cause
inflammation of the brain (encephalitis)
inflammation of tissue covering the brain and spinal cord. (meningitis)
inflammation of ovaries (oophoritis) and breast (mastitis) and deafness
Mumps can be prevented with
Human scabies is caused by an infestation of the skin by the human itch mite (Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis).
microscopic scabies mite burrows into the upper layer of the skin where it lives and lays its eggs.
The most common symptoms of scabies are intense itching and a pimple-like skin rash.
The scabies mite usually is spread by direct, prolonged, skin-to-skin contact with a person who has scabies.
first time a person gets scabies they usually have no symptoms during the first 2 to 6 weeks they are infested; however they can still spread scabies during this time.
Scabies mites generally do not survive more than 2 to 3 days away from human skin.
Scabicide should be applied to all areas of the body from the neck down to the feet and toes.
Products used to treat scabies are called scabicides because they kill scabies mites; some also kill mite eggs.
No “over-the-counter” (non-prescription) products have been tested and approved to treat scabies.
The scabicide should be applied to a clean body and left on for the recommended time before washing it off.
Schistosomiasis also known as bilharzia a disease caused by parasitic worms
schistosomiasis is considered one of the Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTD)
Parasites that cause NTD live in certain freshwater snails
Serologic test can diagnosis Schistosomiasis
There are two types of Schistosomiasis
Urinary and intestinal
Treatment for Schistosomiasis
is Praziquantel for 1 to 2 days
Smallpox is caused by the variola virus that emerged in human populations thousands of years ago.
Smallpox is a serious, contagious, and sometimes fatal infectious disease. The pox part of smallpox is derived from the Latin word for “spotted” and refers to the raised bumps that appear on the face and body of an infected person.
There are two clinical forms of smallpox. Variola major is the severe and most common form of smallpox, with a more extensive rash and higher fever. There are four types of variola major smallpox: ordinary (the most frequent type, accounting for 90% or more of cases); modified (mild and occurring in previously vaccinated persons); flat; and hemorrhagic (both rare and very severe).
Historically, variola major has an overall fatality rate of about 30%; however, flat and hemorrhagic smallpox usually are fatal. Variola minor is a less common presentation of smallpox, and a much less severe disease, with death rates historically of 1% or less.