Cell and Tissue Biology of the Respiratory System - Bolender Flashcards Preview

M2 Renal/Respiratory > Cell and Tissue Biology of the Respiratory System - Bolender > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cell and Tissue Biology of the Respiratory System - Bolender Deck (23):
1

Gas exchange in the lungs occurs where?

What is the common structure found in these locations?

Respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveolar sacs

All contain alveoli

2

The conducting passages of the respiratory system are lined by what?

mucosa

3

What is the purpose of the respiratory mucosa?

Provide immunological and physical barrier

Source secretory products necessary for respiratory function

Serve as a selective absorptive interface

4

What are the three mucosal structures present in all parts of the lung conducting passages?

Epithelium

Basement membrane

Lamina propria

5

Describe the histological features of the nasal mucosa

Epithelium: pseudostratified columnar epithelia with goblet cells

Lamina Propria: prominent venous plexus and seromucous glands

6

The interactions between mucosal cilia and glands that removes foreign particles from the respiratory passages is called what?

The mucociliary escalator

7

Give (5) cell types found in the respiratory epithelium

Columnar cells

Goblet cells

Basal cells

Small Granule cells

Brush cells

8

Name (4) cell types found in the olfactory epithelium?

Olfactory cells

Supporting cells

Basal cells

Brush cells

9

Name one unique histological feature of the nasopharynx mucosa

abunant lymphocytes

10

The true vocal cord is lined by what type of epithelium?

Why?

stratified squamous epithelium

stress/abrasion from turbulent airflow

11

The trachea contains a deep layer (below the lamina propria) with prominent seromucous glands. Name it.

sub-mucosa

12

Prominent c-shaped cartilage rings is characteristic of what level of the repiratory conducting pathways?

tranchea

13

What is the primary mechanical support of the bronchi?

The bronchioles?

cartilage plates

smooth muscle

14

What is a clara cell? What is (likely) their main function?

A multifunctional cell type that replaces goblet cells in the terminal bronchioles. 

Secrete protective glycosaminoglycans to protect the bronchiole lining

15

Describe the metaplastic effect of smoking on the respiratory epithelium

Smoking causes continuous irritation of the pseudostratified columnar respiratory epithelia. This induces a metaplastic transformation to pseudostratified squamous epithelia.

16

Define: pulmonary lobule

A terminal bronchiole and the lung tissue it supplies

17

Define: pulmonary acinus

Portion of the lung supplied by a respiratory bronchiole

18

What cell type makes up most of the surface area of the alveoli?

Which cell type is most numerous?

Which cell type secretes surfactent?

Type I pneumocytes

Type II pneumocytes

Type II pneumocytes

19

Give the general components of surfactent

  • Phospholipid - phosphotidylcholine, phosphotidylglycerol
  • Proteins - surfactent proteins A, B, C, D
  • Antioxidants

20

Where is ACE found?

ACE is found on the pulmonary capillar endotheliual cells

21

The alveolar walls are supported by what structural proteins?

collagen fibrils and elastin

22

Name the (4) components of the blood-air barrier of the alveolar system

  1. Type I pneumocyte cell body (thin portion)
  2. Fused basement membrane of Type I pneumocytes and capillary endothelium
  3. capillary endothelial cell
  4. Erythrocyte plasma membrane

23

What are alveolar dust cells?

If these cells take up excessive amounts of hemosiderin, what are they now called?

alveolar macrophages

heart failure cells

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