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Flashcards in Urinary Tract Development - Bolender Deck (16):

Division of what structure provides for separate outlets for the UG and GI systems?

What subdivides this structure?

What is the precursor tissue of this structure?

The cloaca

Urorectal septum

Splanchnic mesenchyme


The cranial part of the UG sinus forms what?

The urinary bladder and urethra


The lining of the UG sinus is derived from what?

The smooth muscle and CT of the bladder wall is derived from what?


surrounding splanchnic mesoderm


What structure is associated with the entrance of the ureters and exit of the urethra?

How is the process forming this structure different in males?


In males, additional growth/differentiation along the trigone region forms the mesonephric ducts, which migrate inferiorly and open directly into the urethra rather than the bladder.


What is the fate of the mesonephric diverticulum in males?

Forms the vas deferens


A vesico-umbilical fistula forms due to the failure of what?

Failure of regression of the allantois and urachus


What is extrophy of the bladder?

Are these babies typically healthy? What about gonadal structures?

What are some associated anatomical findings?

A defect in the ventral abdominal wall that causes the lining of the bladder and urethra to be open to the surface.

Yes - typicall healthy except for anatomical abnormalities. Gonadal structures are usually normal.

Associated findings: epispadius (dorsal splaying of the penis), shortened vagina, bifid clitoris


Higher ureteral reflux is associated with greater risk of what?

  • greater risk of scarring
  • increased risk of associated anatomical abnormalities
  • spontaneous resolution less likely
  • need for surgical intervention more likely


What is the general treatment strategy for ureteral reflux?

Antibiotic prophylaxis

surgical repair


What is the usual treatment for bladder extrophy?

What is the most prevalent long-term complication?

Surgical repair shortly after birth

Incontinence issues long-term


The caudal portion of the UG sinus forms what structures in males?

In females?

Male: proximal portion of prostatic urethra

Female: Most of the urethra


The pelvic portion of the definitive UG sinus contributes to what structures in males?

In females?

Male: epithelium of distal prostatic and membranous urethra

Female: epithelium of lower half of vagina


The phallic portion of the definitive UG sinus contributes to what structures in males?

In females?

Male: epithelium of penile urethra

Female: epithelium of the vestibule


Urinary obstruction and Prune Belly Syndrome are associated of what anomaly of urethral development?

agenesis and atresia of the urethra


What is a posteiror urethral valve?

Posterior urethral valves are a common cause of renal failure in what population?

Mucosal folds which obstruct the lumen of the urethra

common cause of renal failure in boys (affects males only)


Describe the pathology of posterior urethral valves

What is the prognosis?

Obstructing membrane/valve forms at the membranous urethra

results is a massively distended bladder (obstruction), oligohydramnios, poorly developed chest cavity (due to compression), and small echo-bright kidneys

The valves are easy to ablate surgically, but in most cases the damage is already permanent - irreversible dysplasia

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