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Flashcards in Cell Communication - Cliff Notes Deck (21):
1

nuclear division

divides genetic material in nucleus

2

cytokinesis

divides cytoplasm to form 2 new cells, each w/ one nucleus

3

mitosis

divides nucleus so both daughter cells are genetically identical, division of nucleus to form 2 nuclei

4

meiosis

reproduction division, produces, genetically variable daughter cells that contain half of genetic info of parent cell

5

chromatin

genetic material

6

chromosomes

tightly coiled chromatin; 2 halves of sister chromatids, joined at centromere

7

diploid cells

2 copies of every chromosome, forming homologous chormosomes

8

homologous chormosomes

one homologue originated fr maternal, other fr paternal

9

how many chromosomes do humans have?

46, 23 homologous pairs; 92 chromatids

10

cell cycle

sequence of events that occurs during life of most eukaryotic cells

11

interphase

period cell not divide, chromatic enclosed in clearly defined nuclear envelop

12

nucleoeli

within nucleus

13

microtubule organizing centers (MTOCs)

outside nucleus, adj to one another
are centrosomes in animals, contain pair of centrioles

14

M phase

mitosis and cytokinesis

15

4 phasees of mitosis

prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase (cytokinesis begins during telophasae)

16

prophase (condensation)

nucleoli disappear, chromatin condenses into chromosomes, nuclear envelop breaks down, mitotic spindle assembled

17

assembly of mitotic spindles

begins as MTOCs move apart to opp poles of nucleus, develop fr each MTOC, increasing length bu adding tubulin units to microtubule ends away fro MTOC

18

kinetochore

specialized region in centromere, where microtubules connect

19

metaphase (alignment)

chromosomes aligned across metaphase plate, ends when microtubules pull chromosome apart into 2 chromatids (each has centromere and kinetochore; once separated fro sister chromatid is called a chromosome)

20

metaphase plate

plan between 2 poles of spindle

21

anaphase (separation)

begins after chromosomes separated into chromatids; microtubules connected to chromatids shorted, pull to opposite poles; shorten as tubulin units uncoupled at chromosome ends