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Flashcards in Molecular Bio - Cliff Notes Deck (28):
1

central dogma

DNA --> RNA --> proteins/enzymes --> traits, metabolism, homeostasis

2

nucleotides

DNA and RNA = polymers of

3

DNA

deoxyribose sugar; adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine; genes of the cell; double-helix

4

RNA (protein synthesis)

ribose sugar; adenine, guanine, cytosine, uracil; mRNA, tRNA, rRNA

5

mRNA

instructions for putting amino acids into polypeptide chains; linear

6

tRNA

transfer RNA; delivers amino acids to ribosome to add to polypeptide chain; upside down L shape

7

rRNA

ribosomal RNA; combines w/ proteins to make ribosomes; globular

8

RNA (RNA processing)

snRNA: small nuclear RNA; globular; combines w/ proteins to form small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs) which process RNA before they leave the nucleus

9

RNA (regulating gene expression)

siRNA; miRNA; adenine, cytosine, guanine, uracil

10

siRNA, miRNA

regulates gene expression by blocking/degrading mRNA; linear

11

Griffith

discovered that genetic info can be transferred fr dead bacteria to living bacteria
-dead bacteria w/ polysaccharide coat and causes pneumonia + live bacteria w/o coat and not cause pneumonia = live bacteria w/ coat that cause pneomonia

12

transformation

ability of bacteria to absorb and express genetic info fr surrundings

13

Avery, MacLeod, McCarty

DNA = heredity info of cell

14

Hershey and Chase

DNA = genetic material of phages
phages = DNA and protein
-substituted radioactive sulfur for sulfur in amino acids
INCOMPLETE

15

one gene one enzyme hypothesis

gene codes fro particular enzyme --> redefined as DNA segment that codes for particular polypeptide (one gene one polypeptide hypothesis)

16

___ are the end products of _____ regulated by ____

traits, metabolic processes, enzymes

17

DNA replication

separating/unzipping double strand DNA into 2 strandes for a template to assemble new, complementary strands

18

semiconservative replication

b/c new strands of DNA include 1 old strand

19

helicase

enzyme that unwinds DNA helix, forming replication fork (y shaped)

20

single strand binding prteins

attach to each strand of uncoiled DNA to keep separate

21

topoisomerases

enzymes that break and rejoin double helix in front, allows twists to unravel and prevents formation of knots

22

DNA polymerase

enzyme that assembles new DNa strand, moves in 3' --> 5' direciton

23

anitparallel

strand that grows in 5' --> 3' direction

24

leading strand

complementary strand that is assembled 5' --> 3' by the 3' --> 5' strand

25

Okazaki fragments

short segments of complementary DNA, connected by DNA ligase, produce single complementary strand

26

laggging strand

the Okazaki assembled strand, called b/c requires more time to assemble than leading strand

27

primase

enzyme that begins replication w/ short segment of RNA (RNA primer); leading strand and every Okazaki fragment must begin w/ RNA primer

28

chromosome structure

prokaryotic chromosome = circular