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Flashcards in Chapter 5 Deck (64):
1

macromolecules

members of carbs, proteins, nucleic acids (huge molecules)

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large biological molecules

carbs, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids

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macromolecules are ___, built from ___

polymers, monomers

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polymer

long molecule consisting of many similar/identical building blocks linked by covalent bonds

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monomers

repeating units of a polymer
connected by dehydration reaction

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enzymes

specialized macromolecules that speed up chem reactions

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dehydration reaction

when 2 molecules are covalently bonded to each other w/ loss of a water molecule
one monomer provides the OH, other provides H

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hydrolysis

disassembles polymers to make monomers, reverse of dehydration synthesis
bond broken w/ addition of a water molecule (eg. digestion)

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how many monomers are used in constructing molecules?

40-50 common monomers and a few rare ones

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how is it possible to create so many different polymers?

linear sequence is important.
*small molecules common to all organisms are ordered into unique macromolecules

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carbohydrates serve as ___ and ___

fuel, building material

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carbohydrates

sugars and polymers of sugars

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monosaccharides

simple sugars
have molecular formulas that are the multiple of the unit CH2O (eg. glucose, C6H12O6)
molecule has carbonyl group (CO) and multiple hydroxyl groups (OH)
major nutrients for cells

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disaccharides

double sugars, 2 monosaccharides joined by covalent bond (glycosidic linkage)

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polysaccharides

many sugar building blocks, macromolecules
storage material, hydrolyzed as needed for sugar
building material for structures that protect the cell/whole organism
architect and function determined by sugar monomers and position of glycosidic links

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aldose/aldehyde sugar

carbonyl group at end of carbon skeleton

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ketose/ketone sugar

carbonyl group in middle of carbon skeleton

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most names for sugars end in:

-ose

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Can also classify sugars according to:

size of carbon skeleton (3-7)
eg. glucose, galactose (aldehydes), fructose (ketone) = hexoses
eg. ribose (aldehyde), ribulose (ketone) = pentoses
eg. glyceraldehyde (aldehyde), dihydroxyacetone (ketone) = trioses

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sugars can also differ in

spatial diversity

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glycosidic linkage

covalent bond formed between 2 monosaccharides by a dehydration reaction (e.g.. maltose = 2 glucoses, sucrose = glucose + fructose)

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starch

polymer of glucose monomers, stored as granules within plastids
enables plant to stockpile surplus glucose
most glucose in it joined by 1-4 linkages (No 1 carbon to no 4 carbon)
glucose monomers are in alpha config.

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glycogen

polymer of glucose like amylopectin, more extensively branched
stored mainly in liver and muscle cells
releases glucose when need for sugar incr.

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cellulose

major component of tough walls of plant cells
polysaccharide
glucose monomers in beta config.
never branched
few animals can digest (some animals have cellulose digesting microbes in their stomach, eg. cows, termites)

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glucose

has 2 rings (alpha and beta), alpha = water OH on bottom, beta = OH on top

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chitin

carb used by arthropods to build exoskeletons, also found in fungi
has beta links, but glucose monomer of chitin has nitrogen-containing appendage

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lipids are a diverse group of ___ molecules

hydrophobic

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lipids

don't include true polymers
mix poorly w/ water
mostly hydrocarbon regions
include fats, phospholipids, steroids

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fat

smaller molecules, glycerol and fatty acids
3 fatty acid molecules joined to glycerol by ester linkage

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fatty acid

long carbon skeleton (16-18)
carbon at one end of skeleton is part of carboxyl group (gives name acid)

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ester linkage

bond formed by dehydration reaction between hydroxyl group and carbon group

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triacylglycerol

3 fatty acids linked to one glycerol molecules

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saturated fatty acid

no double bonds between carbon atoms composing a chain
as many H atoms as poss bonded to carbon skeleton
most animal fats = saturated: HC chains of fact acids (tails) lack double bonds and allows fat molecules to pack together tightly

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unsaturated fatty acid

has 1+ double bonds, 1 few H atom on each double-bonded atom

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cis double bonds

nearly all double bonds in naturally occurring fatty acids
cause a kink in hydrocarbon

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atheroscerlosis

plaques develop within walls of blood vessels, cause inward bulges that impede blood flow and reduce resilience of vessels
caused by died rich in saturated fats

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trans fats

unsaturated fats w/ trans double bonds

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major function of fats

energy storage

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adipose cells/tissue

stock long term food
cushions vital organs
insulates body

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phospholipid

has only 2 fatty acids attached to glycerol rather than three; third joined to a phosphate group (neg electrical charge in cell)
additional small charged/polar mole also linked to phosphate group (eg. choline)

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two ends of phospholipids are different b/c:

hydrocarbon tails = hydrophobic
phosphate group = hydrophilic head
form bilayers (cell membranes)

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steroids

lipids w/ carbon skeleton consisting of 4 fused rings
distinguished by chem groups attached to the ensemble of rings

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cholesterol

steroid crucial in animals
component of anima cell membranes
precursor to other steroids (sex hormones)
synthesized in liver and obtained in diet
high level may contrib. to atherosclerosis

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proteins include a diversity of ___, resulting in a wide range of ___

structures, functions

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importance of proteins

50%+ of dry mass of most cells
speed up chem reactions
some play role in defense, storage, transport, cell communication, movement, structural support

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catalysts

enzymatic proteins that regulate metabolism
chem agents hat selectively speed up chem reactions w/o being consumed by the reaction

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proteins are all made of:

20 proteins

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polypeptide

polymer of amino acids

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protein

biologically function molecule made up of one+ polypeptides, each folded and coiled into specific 3D structure

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amino acid

organic molecule w/ amino group and carboxyl group
@ center is an alpha carbon, asymmetric carbon atom partnered w/ amino group, carboxyl group, H atom, variable group symbolized by R

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side chain/R

differs w/ each amino acid

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enzymatic proteins

selective acceleration of chem reactions
(eg. digestive enzymes catalyze hydrolysis bonds in food molecules)

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defensive proteins

protection against disease (eg. antibodies inactivate and help destroy viruses and bacteria)

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storage proteins

storage of amino acids (eg. casein, protein of mile, source of amino acids for baby mammals)

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transport proteins

transport of substances (eg. hemoglobin, iron-containing protein of vertebrate blood, transports oxygen fr lungs to other parts of the body, others transport across cell membranes)

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hormonal proteins

coordination of organism activities (eg. insulin, hormone secreted by pancreas, causes other tissues to take up glucose, regulating blood sugar concentration)

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receptor proteins

response of cell to chem stimuli (eg. receptors built into membrane of nerve cell detect signaling molecules released by other nerve cells)

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contractile and motor proteins

movement (eg. motor proteins responsible for undulations of cilia and flagella; actin and myosin proteins responsible for contraction of muscles)

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structural proteins

support (eg. keratin = protein of hair, horns, feathers, etc; collagen and elastin proteins provide a fibrous framework in animal connective tissues)

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acidic amino acids

have side chains hat are generally neg in charge due to presence of carboxyl group, which usually dissociate at cellular pH, hydrophilic

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basic amino acids

amino groups in side chains that are generally positive in charge, hydrophilic

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hydrophobic; non polar side chains

glycine, alanine, valine, leucine, isoleucine, methionine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, proline

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hydrophilic

serine, threonin, cystein, tyrosine, asparagine, glutamine

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electrically charged side chains, hydrophilic

aspartic acid, glutamic acid (acidic)lysine, arginine, histidine (basic)