Cell Membrane Flashcards Preview

Biology > Cell Membrane > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cell Membrane Deck (22):


a process by which the contents of a cell vacuole are released to the exterior through fusion of the vacuole membrane with the cell membrane.



the ingestion of bacteria or other material by phagocytes and amoeboid protozoans.


Contractile Vacuole

a membrane-enveloped cellular organelle, found in many microorganisms, that periodically expands, filling with water, and then contracts, expelling its contents to the cell exterior: thought to be important in maintaining hydrostatic equilibrium.



a process by which molecules of a solvent tend to pass through a semipermeable membrane from a less concentrated solution into a more concentrated one, thus equalizing the concentrations on each side of the membrane.



contraction of the protoplast of a plant cell as a result of loss of water from the cell.



In cell biology, a vesicle is a small structure within a cell, consisting of fluid enclosed by a [lipid bilayer]. Vesicles can form naturally, for example, during the processes of secretion (exocytosis), uptake (phagocytosis and endocytosis) and transport of materials within the cytoplasm.


Concentration Gradient

The formal definition of concentration gradient is the process of particles, which are sometimes called solutes, moving through a solution or gas from an area of higher number of particles to an area of lower number of particles. The areas are typically separated by a membrane.



The state in which the concentrations of the diffusing substance in the two compartments are the same or become equal.


Turgor Pressure

Turgor pressure pushes the plasma membrane against the cell wall of plant, bacteria, and fungi cells as well as those protist cells which have cell walls.



Phagocytes are cells that protect the body by ingesting (phagocytosing) harmful foreign particles, bacteria, and dead or dying cells. Their name comes from the Greek phagein, "to eat" or "devour", and "-cyte", the suffix in biology denoting "cell", from the Greek kutos, "hollow vessel".



Endocytosis is a form of active transport in which a cell transports molecules (such as proteins) into the cell (endo- + cytosis) by engulfing them in an energy-using process.


Ion channel

Ion channels are pore-forming membrane proteins whose functions include establishing a resting membrane potential, shaping action potentials and other electrical signals by gating the flow of ions across the cell membrane, controlling the flow of ions across secretory and epithelial cells, and regulating cell volume.



Cytolysis, or osmotic lysis, occurs when a cell bursts due to an osmotic imbalance that has caused excess water to move into the cell.



The term isotonic may refer to; Isotonic (exercise physiology), a type of muscle contraction. Isotonic regression, a type of numerical analysis. Isotonic, one of three types of tonicity that characterize a solution's concentration. A sports drink that contains similar concentrations of salt and sugar to the human body.



In a hypotonic solution the total molar concentration of all dissolved solute particles is less than that of another solution or less than that of a cell. If concentrations of dissolved solutes are less outside the cell than inside, the concentration of water outside is correspondingly greater.



There are three types of solutions that can occur in your body based on solute concentration: isotonic, hypotonic, and hypertonic. An isotonic solution is one in which the concentration of solutes is the same both inside and outside of the cell.May 13, 2015



Diffusion refers to the process by which molecules intermingle as a result of their kinetic energy of random motion. Consider two containers of gas A and B separated by a partition. The molecules of both gases are in constant motion and make numerous collisions with the partition.


Passive Transport

Passive transport is a movement of biochemicals and other atomic or molecular substances across cell membranes without need of energy input.


Active transport

Active transport is the movement of molecules across a cell membrane from a region of their lower concentration to a region of their higher concentration in the direction against some gradient or other obstructing factor (often a concentration gradient).


Sodium Potassium Pump

sodium-potassium pump. Type: Term. Definitions: 1. a membrane-bound transporter found in nearly all mammalian cells that transports potassium ions into the cytoplasm from the extracellular fluid while simultaneously transporting sodium ions out of the cytoplasm to the extracellular fluid.



the ingestion of liquid into a cell by the budding of small vesicles from the cell membrane.


Carrier Protein

Channel proteins facilitate the diffusion of different molecules, while carrier proteins are involved in the movement of ions, small molecules, or macromolecules, such as another protein, across a biological membrane.