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Flashcards in Cell Physiology Deck (27):
1

Autoregulation

Myogenic - local baroreceptors react to vascular stretching/relaxing by constricting/dilating vessel
Metabolic - local chemoreceptors constrict/dilate in response to high metabolic waste/low O2

2

Cellular components

Nucleus
Ribosome - translation
Golgi apparatus - modifies and packages proteins
Rough ER - makes proteins, attached to ribsome
Smooth ER - makes lipids
Mitochondira - ATP production
Lysosome - cell digestion
Cytoskeleton
Membrane

3

Eukaryotic vs Prokaryotic

Pro - no nucleus, slime capsule, complex cell wall, no carbs/sterols in membrane, small ribosome
Euk - nucleus, complex glycocalyx, simple cell wall, carbs/sterols in membrane, large ribosome

4

Cellular composition

H20 - 80%
Protein - 10-20%
Carbs - 1-5%

5

ICF electrolyte levels
Na+
K+
Ca+2
Cl-
HCO3-
pH

Na+ - 14
K+ - 120
Ca2+ - 1*10-4
HCO3- - 10
pH - 7.1
Protein - 16

6

Osmotic pressure

Pressure required to stop the flow of H20 across a membrane

7

Oncotic pressure/colloid osmotic pressure

Osmotic pressure across a blood vessel

8

Resting membrane potential

~-70mv

9

Diffusion potential

Potential created when an ion crosses a membrane while diffusing down its concentration gradient

10

Equilibrium potential

Charge at which an ion stops diffusing

11

Threshold

~-60 mv

12

Types of cell transport

Simple - diffusion across membrane
Facilitated (passive) - diffusion through channels
Primary active - pumped up gradient, ATP used at pump
Secondary active - pumped up gradient, ATP used elsewhere

13

Cotransport/symport vs Countertransport/antiport

Sym - moving in same direction
Anti - moving in opposite directions

14

Saturation kinetics

Can't increase transport rate when all transporters are in use

15

Partition coefficient

Oil vs H2O solubility - higher equals more lipid soluble

16

What determines diffusion?

Concentration gradient
Surface area
Diffusion coefficient (solute shape/size)
Partition coefficient (lipid/H20 solubility)
Membrane thickness

17

Hyperpolarization

K+ lowers membrane potential below resting potential (~-85) before K+ gates close

18

Absolute refractory period

Na+ gates are open but inactivated, occurs during repolarization, no additional AP possible

19

Atrophy

Loss of cell mass

20

Hypertrophy

Increase in cell mass

21

Hyperplasia

Increase in cell number

22

Dysplasia

Abnormal change in size, shape or arrangement of cells; often associated w/ cancer

23

Metaplasia

Replacement of one cell type by another

24

Ways to influence synaptic transmission

Block neurotransmitter release
Block receptor
Prevent neurotransmitter production
Use up transmitter
Increase transmitter esterase
Bind and change transmitter
Prevent reuptake of transmitter

25

Inhibitory neurotransmitters

GABA and Glycine

26

Free radicals

Byproducts of metabolism that have an unpaired electron - can donate to and damage DNA
Absorbed by antioxidants

27

Ionic equilibrium potentials
Na+
K+
Ca+2
Cl-

Na+ = +65
K+ = -85
Ca+2 = +120
Cl- = -90