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Flashcards in Respiratory Deck (47):
1

Nasal meatus

Spaces b/w turbinates - filter, warm and humidify air

2

Turbinates

Projections w/in nose

3

Conchae

Nasal bones that form turbinates

4

Nares

Filter, warm and humidify air

5

Mediastinum

Space b/w lungs
Trachea and heart sit w/in mediastinum

6

Internal vs external intercostals

Internal = inspiration
External = expiration

7

Pleura

Fluid-filled lining around lungs - visceral (lung-side) and parietal (rib-side)

8

Hilum

Where veins, arteries, lymph and bronchi enter lungs

9

Trace the respiratory tract

Nasopharynx--> oropharynx--> hypopharynx--> larynx (epiglottis, vocal cords, thyroid cartilage, crichoid cartilage)--> trachea--> lobar bronchi--> segmental--> subsegmental--> --> --> bronchioles--> alveoli

10

Number of alveoli in children/adults

25/300 million

11

Composition of bronchial walls

Goblet cells (musin)
Cilia
Phagocytes
Smooth muscle
Cartilage and collagen

12

Pores of Kohn

Ports b/w alveoli

13

Acinus

Cluster of alveoli

14

Lung stretch receptors

Involved in reflex action - prevents over-inflation of lungs

15

Tidal volume

Amount of air moved out of the lungs during normal respiration
Normal = 5-6 liters

16

Accessory respiratory muscles

Accessory Inspiration - sternocleidomastoid, scalenes
Accessory Expiration - external and internal obliques, rectus abdominis, transversus abdominis

17

Compliance

Ability to distend

18

Functional residual capacity (FRC)

Amount left in lungs after a normal, passive expiration
(Residual volume) + (expiratory reserve)

19

Alveolar and pleural pressures

Alveoli (PA) = -1 to +1
Pleural = -7.5 to -5

20

Transpulmonary pressure

Difference b/w pleural and alveolar pressures
Pressure that the solid container is seeing
Positive - lung expands
Negative - lung contracts

21

Total lung capacity

Maximum air lung can hold; approx. 7 liters

22

Residual volume

Amount still left after a forceful exhalation

23

Vital capacity

Total lung capacity minus residual volume

24

Transmural pressure

Pressure across a wall - sum of the lung and chest wall pressures
Pressure that the solid container is seeing
Equals zero at resting, + at inspiration and - at expiration

25

Types of cells in alveoli

Type I - structural
Type II - surfactact
J - unknown
Phagocytes

26

Partial pressures of O2 in alveoli and capillaries

PA02 - 104 mmHg
Venous mixed blood - 40 mmHg

27

Respiratory rate

Breaths/minute
Normal = 12-16

28

Minute ventilation

(Respiratory rate) x (tidal volume) = Volume of air moved per minute (Liters/minute)
Normal = 5-8 L/min

29

Hypoxemia vs Hypoxia

Low P02 in the blood vs an organ

30

Hypoventilation

Inadequate to keep PCO2 from rising above normal

31

V/Q

Ventilation/Perfusion
Normal = .8
V/Q < .8 = inadequate ventilation, blood is shunted
V/Q > .8 = ventilation of dead space

32

Vital capacity

(Inspiratory reserve) + (tidal volume) + (expiratory reserve)

33

Inspiratory capacity

(Tidal volume) + (inspiratory reserve)

34

Total lung capacity

(Inspiratory reserve) + (tidal volume) + (expiratory reserve) + (residual volume)

35

Functional residual capacity

(Expiratory reserve) + (residual volume)

36

FEV1

Fraction of expired air exhaled in first second

37

Normal (FEV1)/(FVC)

.8

38

Obstrictive vs restrictive problems

Obstruction = bronchitis, asthma, emphysema; loss of recoil, loss of volume, increase in residual volume or decrease in airway radius
Restriction = fibrosis, obesity, pulmonary edema; prevent lungs from expanding or filling; loss of compliance

39

DRG/VRG

Dorsal respiratory group - auto rhythm, primary respiratory center, innervates diaphragm and inspiratory intercostals
Ventral respiratory group - provides extra help for inspiration/expiration, innervates larynx and vocal cords

40

How do obstructive problems look on Flow-volume and volume-time curves?

Flow-volume = bowl shaped
Volume-time = takes longer to reach plateau

41

How do restrictive problems look on flow-volume and volume-time curves?

Flow-volume = missile shaped
Volume-time = plateaus like normal but w/lower volume

42

Pressures in respiratory system

Pleura = -5
Alveoli = -1 to +1

43

Bohr effect

As H+, temp, CO2 and 2,3-BPG increase hemoglobin oxygen affinity decreases (right-shift)

44

Oxygen hemoglobin affinity curve

Right-shift = decrease in affinity (acidic, hypercapnic, hyperthermic)
Left-shift = increase in affinity (alkalosis, hypocapnic, hypothermic)

45

Hyaline membrane disease

aka infant resp. distress syndrome - premies don't produce surfactant, alveoli collapse

46

Right-to-left and left-to-right shunting

Right-to-left (septal defect) causes hypoxia; left-to-right (patent ductus arteriosus) doesn't

47

p50

Partial pressure of oxygen at which hemoglobin is 50% saturated
Increased p50 = right shift and decrease in affinity - requires higher PaO2 to become 50% saturated
Decreased p50 = left shift and increase in affinity - requires lower Pa02 to become 50% saturated