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Flashcards in Cell Quiz Review Deck (51)
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1
Q
Do cells have variety, or are they all just circles and squares?
A
Yes! Cells have lots of variety, and they are all unique
2
Q
Who created the term "cells"?
A
Robert Hooke coined the term "cells" in 1665 when he looked at cork under a microscope
3
Q
Who is the "father of microbiology"?
A
Leeuwenhoek is known as the father of microbiology, he looked at live cells
4
Q
What is part 1 of cell theory?
A
1. All living things are made of cells
5
Q
What is part 2 of cell theory?
A
2. Cells are the building blocks of life
6
Q
Who created parts 1 and 2 of cell theory?
A
Schleiden and Schwann are the creators of parts 1 and 2 of cell theory
7
Q
What is part 3 of cell theory?
A
3. All cells come from pre-existing cells
8
Q
Who created part 3 of cell theory?
A
Virchow was the creator of part 3 of cell theory
9
Q
Do cells with different functions have different shapes?
A
YES! The shape of the cell helps it do it's job, so they all have different shapes
10
Q
What are the 4 parts that all cells have in common?
A
The 4 parts are a Plasma Membrane, Cytoplasm, Ribosomes, and some form of DNA
11
Q
What are the 2 types of cells?
A
The 2 types of cells are Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic - the main difference is how they store their DNA
12
Q
Do Prokaryotic cells have a nucleus?
A
No! Prokaryotic cells do not have a nucleus. They have circular DNA, and they store their it in the cytoplasm instead
13
Q
Do Eukaryotic cells have a nucleus?
A
Yes! Eukaryotic cells contain a nucleus. They have linear DNA, and they store it in the nucleus
14
Q
What are organisms that have Prokaryotic cells called?
A
Organisms that have Prokaryotic cells are called Prokaryotes, and they are single-celled organisms. These are the most common type of organism, and also the least advanced
15
Q
What are organisms that have Eukaryotic cells called?
A
Organisms that have Eukaryotic cells are called Eukaryotes, and they are found in multi-cellular organisms. These cells are usually larger, and they contain other organelles so they can carry out more functions
16
Q
What are organelles?
A
Organelles are structures in the cytoplasm that perform a specific job for the cell. Ribosomes are the ONLY organelle in Prokaryotic cells
17
Q
Which domains of life contain Prokaryotic cells?
A
The Bacteria and Archaea domains have Prokaryotic cells
18
Q
What kingdoms contain Eukaryotic cells?
A
The Plants, Animals, Fungi, and Protists all contain Eukaryotic cells
19
Q
What are the 4 things that EVERY living thing has?
A
Every living thing has DNA, Cytoplasm, Ribosomes, and a Cell Membrane
20
Q
What are proteins made of?
A
Proteins are made of Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Nitrogen (hint. CHON)
21
Q
What is the monomer (building block) of a protein?
A
The monomer of a protein is an amino acid
22
Q
How many different types of amino acids are there?
A
There are 20 total types of amino acids
23
Q
What is the primary structure of a protein?
A
The primary structure of a protein is the order of the amino acids
24
Q
What is the secondary structure of a protein?
A
The secondary structure occurs when the amino acid sequences are link by Hydrogen bonds to form Beta Pleated Sheets and Alpha Helices
25
Q
What is the tertiary structure of a protein?
A
The tertiary structure occurs when attractions are present between Beta Pleated Sheets and Alpha Helices
26
Q
What is the quaternary structure of a protein?
A
The quaternary structure occurs when there is more than 1 amino acid chain inside the protein
27
Q
What are some of the many functions of a protein?
A
Some of the functions of proteins are to provide structure and support, help the immune system, transport materials, as enzymes to speed up reactions, and more!
28
Q
What changes from one amino acid to another?
A
The variable side chain, R, changes from one amino acid to another. Each amino acid has a different side chain to make it unique
29
Q
What do amino acids bond together to form?
A
Amino acids bond together to form polypeptides
30
Q
How many types of amino acids can humans synthesize?
A
Humans can synthesize 12 of the 20 amino acids. The other's are the "essential amino acids" and must be consumed in food
31
Q
What are nucleic acids made of?
A
Nucleic acids are made of Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, and Phosphorus (hint. CHONP)
32
Q
What is the monomer of a nucleic acid?
A
The monomer of a nucleic acid is called a nucleotide
33
Q
What are the 3 parts of a nucleotide?
A
The 3 parts of a nucleotide are a phosphate group, a sugar, and a nitrogenous base
34
Q
What are the 2 types of nucleic acids?
A
The 2 different nucleic acids are DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) and RNA (ribonucleic acid)
35
Q
Where is DNA found?
A
DNA is found ONLY in the nucleus
36
Q
Where is RNA found?
A
RNA is found in the nucleus OR the cytoplasm
37
Q
What is the function of nucleic acids?
A
The function of nucleic acids is to contain and store the genetic code
38
Q
What is DNA the blueprint of?
A
DNA is the blueprint of how to assemble proteins
39
Q
What do nucleotides bond together to form?
A
Nucleotides bond together to form polynucleotides
40
Q
What is the sugar-phosphate backbone?
A
The sugar-phosphate backbone is the backbone that holds the DNA strands together. It is formed by the sugar of one nucleotide bonding to the phosphate group of the next, and so on
41
Q
What happens to the nitrogenous bases on the sugar-phosphate backbone?
A
The nitrogenous bases stick out from the sugar-phosphate backbone - bonds form between them to hold the 2 strands of DNA together
42
Q
What are the different types of nitrogenous bases?
A
The 4 types of nitrogenous bases are cytosine (C), adenine (A), guanine (G), and thymine (T) in DNA, or Uracil (U) in RNA
43
Q
What is the CG base pair?
A
The CG base pair represents the 3 hydrogen bonds that form between cytosine and guanine
44
Q
What is the AT base pair?
A
The AT base pair represents the 2 hydrogen bonds that form between adenine and thymine
45
Q
What are the bonds between the nitrogenous bases known as?
A
Complementary base pairs
46
Q
Do any nitrogenous base bond with any other, or do they only bond with specific ones?
A
Nitrogenous bases will only bond with specific ones! Cytosine will always bond with guanine, and adenine will always bond with thymine
47
Q
What do the bonds between the nitrogenous bases allow the molecule to do?
A
The bonds between the nitrogen bases allow the molecule to form it's classic double helix shape - without those bonds the strands wouldn't be able to keep that shape
48
Q
How many strands does RNA have?
A
RNA is single-stranded. It doesn't form a helix, and is temporary and less stable
49
Q
How many RNA bases correspond to 1 amino acid?
A
3 RNA bases represent 1 amino acid
50
Q
What is the function of DNA?
A
DNA contains the genetic instructions for the sequence of amino acids in proteins
51
Q
What is the function of RNA?
A
RNA uses the information in DNA to assemble the amino acids and make the protein