Cell Cycle Quiz Review Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Cell Cycle Quiz Review Deck (67)
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1
Q
Where do cells come from?
A
ALL cells come from prexisting cells
2
Q
How does EVERY organism start life?
A
As a single cell
3
Q
What do cells do once they reach their maximum size?
A
They divide - it's a continuous cycle
4
Q
What is cell division?
A
Cell division is when a parent cell divides to form 2 daughter cells - it's simpler in Prokaryotes because the cells are simpler
5
Q
What must happen prior to cell division?
A
EVERY cell part must be duplicated
6
Q
How do Prokaryotes divide?
A
Prokaryotes undergo Binary Fission in order to divide
7
Q
What is the first step of Binary Fission?
A
The DNA replicates and forms 2 identical chromosomes
8
Q
What is the second step of Binary Fission?
A
The chromosomes separate and move to the poles
9
Q
What is the third step of Binary Fission?
A
A new plasma membrane grows in the middle of the cell, and the cell divides
10
Q
How many chromosomes do Prokaryotes have?
A
Prokaryotic cells have a single circular chromosome
11
Q
How many chromosomes do Eukaryotes have?
A
Eukaryotic cells have multiple linear chromosomes
12
Q
In Eukaryotic cells, what happens prior to cell division?
A
The organelles and DNA are duplicated
13
Q
What are the 2 major steps to cell division in Eukaryotes?
A
Mitosis - nucleus divides
Cytokinesis - cytoplasm divides
14
Q
What stage of the cell cycle do Eukaryotes spend most of their life in?
A
Eukaryotic cells spend most of their life in Interphase, where the cell does what it is supposed to do
15
Q
How does cell division relate to the cell cycle?
A
Cell division is one of several stages of the cell cycle, which includes growth, DNA synthesis, and cell division
16
Q
What stages make up the mitotic phase?
A
The mitotic phase is comprised of Mitosis and Cytokinesis
17
Q
What stages make up interphase?
A
Interphase is comprised of G1, S, and G2
18
Q
What is Growth Phase 1 (G1)?
A
G1 is when the cell grows rapidly, makes some proteins needed for cell division, and copies some organelles
19
Q
What is Synthesis (S)?
A
S is when the cells DNA is copied
20
Q
What is Growth Phase 2 (G2)?
A
G2 is when the cell makes the final preparations to divide
21
Q
What is the cell cycle controlled by?
A
Regulatory proteins
22
Q
What is the G1 checkpoint?
A
The G1 checkpoint determines whether or not a cell should divide
23
Q
What is the G2 checkpoint?
A
The G2 checkpoint determines is DNA has been replicated properly
24
Q
What is the M checkpoint (Mitotic spindle checkpoint)?
A
The M checkpoint determines whether the chromosomes are aligned to the mitotic plate
25
Q
What is cancer?
A
Cancer is when the cell cycle is no longer regulated and the cells reproduce and spread out of control
26
Q
Why do cells need to divide?
A
Cells need to divide because they get too big, get worn out or injured, die, or for growth
27
Q
How do multi cellular organisms grow?
A
Multi cellular organisms grow by making more cells
28
Q
What stage do cells spend most of their time in?
A
Interphase
29
Q
What happens when a cell doesn't meet a checkpoint?
A
The cell either fixes the problem if it can, or goes through apoptosis if it can't
30
Q
What is apoptosis?
A
Apoptosis is programmed cell death (self-destruct)
31
Q
What are the 2 types of regulatory proteins?
A
Positive and negative regulators
32
Q
When do chromosomes form?
A
PRIOR to cell division, and after the DNA has been replicated
33
Q
When does the nucleus divide?
A
The nucleus divides prior to cell division, during mitosis
34
Q
What are chromosomes?
A
Chromosomes are coiled structures made of DNA and proteins - genetic material
35
Q
What is chromatin?
A
Chromatin is the form DNA takes when it is not in chromosomes - it is basically like spaghetti, loose strands of DNA surrounding each other
36
Q
What are sister chromatids?
A
Sister chromatids are the 2 parts of a chromosome, they are identical and attach together at the centromere
37
Q
How many genes are on 1 chromosome?
A
There are hundreds or thousands of genes PER CHROMOSOME
38
Q
How many total chromosomes do humans have?
A
46; 23 from each parent (2 sets of 23 each)
39
Q
Each chromosome of 1 set is matched by a chromosome of the other set
A
Same type, but different alleles (homologous chromosomes)
40
Q
What happens in prophase?
A
Prophase is the longest phase of mitosis, and it is when chromatin condenses into chromosomes. the nuclear envelope dissolves, and the centrioles move to opposite poles
41
Q
What happens in metaphase?
A
During metaphase, spindle fibers attach to the centromere of each chromatid pair. Those chromosomes then line up on the equator, and the fibers will ensure that they will separate
42
Q
What happens in anaphase?
A
During anaphase, the sister chromatids separate and the centromeres divide. They are pulled apart by the shortening of the fibers, and at the end each pole has a complete set
43
Q
What happens in telophase?
A
During telophase, the chromosomes uncoil and form chromatin. The spindle breaks down, and new nuclear membranes form
44
Q
What happens in cytokinesis?
A
During cytokinesis, the cytoplasm splits and the cell divides
45
Q
How does cytokinesis occur in animals?
A
In animals, the plasma membrane pinches inward along the equator until the cell splits in 2
46
Q
How does cytokinesis occur in plants?
A
In plants, a cell plate forms along the equator. New membranes and cell walls will grow on either side, completing cell division
47
Q
What are diploid cells?
A
Diploid cells have the full number of chromosomes (somatic cells)
48
Q
What are haploid cells?
A
Haploid cell have half the number of chromosomes (gametes)
49
Q
What are some limitations on cell growth?
A
When cells get too big, the DNA gets overloaded and there isn't enough materials (volume grows too fast)
50
Q
What are cyclins?
A
Cyclins are proteins that regulate the cell cycle
51
Q
How did scientists discover cyclins?
A
Scientists discovered cyclins because they found them in cells undergoing mitosis. When the scientists injected those cyclins into a cell in interphase, a mitotic spindle started to form
52
Q
What are internal regulators?
A
Internal regulators respond to events INSIDE the cell, and let the cycle continue when certain events have passed
53
Q
What are external regulators?
A
External regulators respond to events OUTSIDE the cell, and direct the cell to speed up or slow down
54
Q
What are growth factors?
A
Growth factors are involved in wound healing and embryonic development
55
Q
What is cancer?
A
Cancer is uncontrolled cell growth - cancer cells don't respond to normal signals, have a disrupted cell cycle, and grow and divide uncontrollably
56
Q
What are the 3 steps to cancer formation?
A
1. Cell divides abnormally
2. Produces a tumor and displaces other cells
3. Cancer cells move to other locations
57
Q
What causes cancer?
A
A defect in genes
58
Q
When do centrosomes appear?
A
Centrosomes appear during G2
59
Q
Where do sister chromatids attach to each other?
A
Sister chromatids attach to each other at the centromere
60
Q
What is G0?
A
G0 is where cells go when they aren't dividing or planning to divide
61
Q
What are the 3 checkpoints for the cell cycle?
A
The 3 checkpoints are G1, G2, and M - they occur later in their corresponding phases
62
Q
What checkpoint would check whether a cells DNA has been replicated properly?
A
The G2 checkpoint
63
Q
What checkpoint would check whether there is an ample supply of materials?
A
G1 and G2
64
Q
What checkpoint would check whether all chromosomes are attached to the spindle?
A
The M checkpoint
65
Q
What checkpoint would check whether there is adequate room for more cells?
A
The G1 checkpoint
66
Q
What checkpoint regulates whether a cell goes to G0 or no?
A
G1
67
Q
What happens if a cell doesn't have enough DNA?
A
It will die