Name three differences between prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells.
Genetic material in prokaryotic cells is a single DNA loop.
Genetic material in eukaryotic cells is stored in the nucleus.
Prokaryotic cells have plasmids.
Eukaryotic cells have mitochondria.
Name three differences between animal cells and plant cells.
Plant cells have a permanent vacuole.
Plant cells have a cell wall.
Plant cells have chloroplasts.
In an animal cell, explain the function of:
The cytoplasm is a liquid gel in which the organelles are suspended and where most of the chemical reactions needed for life takes place.
The nucleus controls all the activities of the cell. It contains genes that carry the instructions for making the proteins required to build new cells or new organisms.
The cell-membrane controls the passage of substances such as glucose and mineral ions into the cell. It also controls the movement of substances such as urea or hormones out of the cell.
In a animal cell, explain the function of:
The mitochondria are structures in the cytoplasm where aerobic respiration takes place, releasing energy for the cell.
The ribosomes are where protein synthesis takes place, making all the proteins needed in the cell
Explain the function of these specialised animal cells:
Nerve cells are specialised to carry electrical impulses around the body of an animal.
Sperm cells contain genetic information from the male parent, they also contain a tail and numerous energy producing mitochondria to help them reach the egg.
Muscle cells are specialised cells that contract and relax in order to move bones so that vertebrates can move on land, water and air.
Explain the function of these specialised plant cells:
Root hair cells)
Root hair cells are specialised by having increased surface area for absorbing water into the cells, a large permanent vacuole that speeds up the movement of water from soil to into the root hair cell and many mitochondria that transfers energy needed for the transport of mineral ions into the root hair cell.
Photosynthetic cells that contain specialised structures called chloroplasts which contain chlorophyll that trap the light needed for photosynthesis.
Xylem cells transport water and minerals ions from the roots to the leaves and shoot.
Phloem cells transport food made by photosynthesis around the rest of the plant.