Flashcards in Cells Deck (41):
Gel-like material that fills the cell & surrounds the organelles
Allows material to enter or exit the cell & protects the contents of the cell
Control center of the cell
Transport materials & proteins around the cell
Builds proteins in the cell
Provides energy for the cell by breaking down sugar molecules in cellular respiration
Provides food for a plant cell by collecting energy from the sun during photosynthesis
Rigid material that surrounds a plant cell that gives it shape, support, & protection
Stores food, water, & other materials in the cell
Packages & distributes proteins and other material in the cell
Golgi apparatus (body
Break down larger particles to smaller particles for recycling in the cell
Carry oxygen and other material throughout the body
Structure and movement
Attaches to bone and allows for movement
Detects stimuli from the environment and transmits information between cells
Covers the surface of the body and the lining of internal organs
Description - Tiny particle with nucleic acid surrounded by a protein coat that can only reproduce inside a living cell
Examples - Influenza, cold, HIV, chicken pox
Most Used Treatment - vaccine
Pathogen - virus
Decription - Prokaryotic cell with a cell wall that interferes with the normal function of a cell & reproduces by binary fission
Examples - Strep throat, pneumonia, staph, conjunctivitis, tetanus
Most Used Treatment - antibiotic
Pathogen - bacteria
Description - Most are unicellular organisms that reproduce by spores
Examples - Athlete’s foot, ringworm
Most Used Treatment - Anti-fungal
Pathogen - fungus
Description - An organism that requires a host to obtain nutrients to survive
Examples - Malaria, tapeworm
Most Used Treatment - Varies depending on the type, antimalarial drugs
Pathogen - Protist/parasite
What is the difference between an infectious disease & a non-infectious disease?
Infectious can be spread from person to person & non-infectious cannot be spread
How are the following pathogens most often spread from organism to organism?
Virus: inhaling contaminated air, touch a contaminated object, coming in contact with a contaminated person, exchange of bodily fluids
Fungus: inhaling spores, or spores landing on your
Bacteria: inhaling contaminated air, biological vectors, contaminated objects, coming in contact with a contaminated person
Protist: contaminated food or water, biological vectors
What is the difference between an antibiotic and a vaccine?
Vaccines are weakened forms of a live virus/bacteria that creates an immune response that fights off the infection when the actual virus/bacteria enter your body, antibiotics weaken or kill bacteria only
What does it mean that the cell membrane is selectively permeable?
The cell membrane allows certain materials to leave and enter the cell
Explain how plant and animal cells are different.
Plant cells have a larger vacuole, cell wall, and chloroplast for photosynthesis
List ways you can prevent an infection from a pathogen.
Wash hands, exercise, get rest, eat healthy, get check-ups, stay away from contaminated people,
Describe how a virus infects the body.
Attaches to a cell membrane, injects genetic material, duplicates until the cell burst & dies, newly replicated viruses attack other cells
What is a biological vector? Give an example.
An organism that carries a disease that can be passed to humans. Ex. Malaria is carried by mosquitoes
What is the negative affect of over-using of antibiotics?
Bacteria becomes resistant to antibiotics can be spread to other individuals and make the antibiotic ineffective
What are some positive ways that the following organisms can help in the environment or in industries?
B) Fungus: Mold:
A) Bacteria: healthy digestive systems, production of dairy products (cheese, yogurt), Oxygen for the environment, insulin production for diabetic patients
B) Fungus: Mold: used to make certain antibiotics
Yeast: use to make breads and alcohol from
Why are some antibiotics no longer effective against bacteria infestations?
Overuse of certain antibiotics have killed off the less resistant bacteria allowing for the more resistant bacteria to pass along their DNA
In the equation, P4 + O2 P2O3, if there are 20 g of P4 and 15 g of O2, how many grams of P2O3 will form?
List groups on the periodic table will ionically bond together.
Group 16 ionically bonds with group 2, Group1 ionically bonds with group 17 (metals and nonmetals)
Name three gases that contribute to the greenhouse effect.
carbon dioxide, methane, water vapor
Why is AC current used instead of DC in the power grid?
AC current can travel from high to low voltages & it can changes directions
If you push a skateboard that has a mass of 60kg with a force of 6N, what force will the skateboard push back on you according to Newton’s third law of motion?
_6N_(equal and opposite)
If two objects have different masses, which object is easier to accelerate? Which law supports your answer?
The smaller mass (2nd Law)
The tendency of an object to resist change in its motion is known as __________.
inertia (1st Law)
Newton's first law of motion states that an object remains at rest unless a(n) __________ force acts on it.
The statement "for every action, there is an equal but opposite reaction" is a statement of Newton’s _____ law