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Flashcards in Cells Deck (41):
1

Gel-like material that fills the cell & surrounds the organelles

Cytoplasm

2

Allows material to enter or exit the cell & protects the contents of the cell

Cell membrane

3

Control center of the cell

nucleus

4

Transport materials & proteins around the cell

Endoplasmic reticulum

5

Builds proteins in the cell

ribosomes

6

Provides energy for the cell by breaking down sugar molecules in cellular respiration

mitochondria

7

Provides food for a plant cell by collecting energy from the sun during photosynthesis

chloroplast

8

Rigid material that surrounds a plant cell that gives it shape, support, & protection

Cell wall

9

Stores food, water, & other materials in the cell

vacuole

10

Packages & distributes proteins and other material in the cell

Golgi apparatus (body

11

Break down larger particles to smaller particles for recycling in the cell

lysosomes

12

Carry oxygen and other material throughout the body

blood

13

Structure and movement

bone

14

Attaches to bone and allows for movement

muscle

15

Detects stimuli from the environment and transmits information between cells

nerve

16

Covers the surface of the body and the lining of internal organs

epithelial

17

Description - Tiny particle with nucleic acid surrounded by a protein coat that can only reproduce inside a living cell

Examples - Influenza, cold, HIV, chicken pox

Most Used Treatment - vaccine

Pathogen - virus

18

Decription - Prokaryotic cell with a cell wall that interferes with the normal function of a cell & reproduces by binary fission

Examples - Strep throat, pneumonia, staph, conjunctivitis, tetanus

Most Used Treatment - antibiotic

Pathogen - bacteria

19

Description - Most are unicellular organisms that reproduce by spores

Examples - Athlete’s foot, ringworm

Most Used Treatment - Anti-fungal

Pathogen - fungus

20

Description - An organism that requires a host to obtain nutrients to survive

Examples - Malaria, tapeworm

Most Used Treatment - Varies depending on the type, antimalarial drugs

Pathogen - Protist/parasite

21

What is the difference between an infectious disease & a non-infectious disease?

Infectious can be spread from person to person & non-infectious cannot be spread

22

How are the following pathogens most often spread from organism to organism?

Virus:
Fungus:
Bacteria:
Protist:




Virus: inhaling contaminated air, touch a contaminated object, coming in contact with a contaminated person, exchange of bodily fluids

Fungus: inhaling spores, or spores landing on your

Bacteria: inhaling contaminated air, biological vectors, contaminated objects, coming in contact with a contaminated person

Protist: contaminated food or water, biological vectors

23

What is the difference between an antibiotic and a vaccine?

Vaccines are weakened forms of a live virus/bacteria that creates an immune response that fights off the infection when the actual virus/bacteria enter your body, antibiotics weaken or kill bacteria only

24

What does it mean that the cell membrane is selectively permeable?

The cell membrane allows certain materials to leave and enter the cell

25

Explain how plant and animal cells are different.

Plant cells have a larger vacuole, cell wall, and chloroplast for photosynthesis

26

List ways you can prevent an infection from a pathogen.

Wash hands, exercise, get rest, eat healthy, get check-ups, stay away from contaminated people,
vaccination

27

Describe how a virus infects the body.

Attaches to a cell membrane, injects genetic material, duplicates until the cell burst & dies, newly replicated viruses attack other cells

28

What is a biological vector? Give an example.

An organism that carries a disease that can be passed to humans. Ex. Malaria is carried by mosquitoes

29

What is the negative affect of over-using of antibiotics?

Bacteria becomes resistant to antibiotics can be spread to other individuals and make the antibiotic ineffective

30

What are some positive ways that the following organisms can help in the environment or in industries?

A) Bacteria:

B) Fungus: Mold:
Yeast:

A) Bacteria: healthy digestive systems, production of dairy products (cheese, yogurt), Oxygen for the environment, insulin production for diabetic patients

B) Fungus: Mold: used to make certain antibiotics
Yeast: use to make breads and alcohol from
fermentation

31

Why are some antibiotics no longer effective against bacteria infestations?

Overuse of certain antibiotics have killed off the less resistant bacteria allowing for the more resistant bacteria to pass along their DNA

32

In the equation, P4 + O2  P2O3, if there are 20 g of P4 and 15 g of O2, how many grams of P2O3 will form?

35g

33

List groups on the periodic table will ionically bond together.

Group 16 ionically bonds with group 2, Group1 ionically bonds with group 17 (metals and nonmetals)

34

Name three gases that contribute to the greenhouse effect.

carbon dioxide, methane, water vapor

35

Why is AC current used instead of DC in the power grid?

AC current can travel from high to low voltages & it can changes directions

36

If you push a skateboard that has a mass of 60kg with a force of 6N, what force will the skateboard push back on you according to Newton’s third law of motion?

_6N_(equal and opposite)

37

If two objects have different masses, which object is easier to accelerate? Which law supports your answer?

The smaller mass (2nd Law)

38

The tendency of an object to resist change in its motion is known as __________.

inertia (1st Law)

39

Newton's first law of motion states that an object remains at rest unless a(n) __________ force acts on it.

unbalanced

40

The statement "for every action, there is an equal but opposite reaction" is a statement of Newton’s _____ law

3rd

41

When a swimmer pushes the water back, the water pushes the swimmer forward. What is the reaction force to in this situation?

water pushes the swimmer forward