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Flashcards in Plate Tectonics Deck (15):

Compare and contrast the lithosphere and asthenosphere.

lithosphere- brittle and rigid, crust, top layer, thin

asthenosphere- plastic and flowing, mantle, thick, underneath lithosphere


What are two differences between oceanic and continental crust?

oceanic- thinner, more dense

continental- thicker, less dense


Compare and contrast faulting and folding. Draw a diagram of each.

faulting- tension forces cause cracks in crust (pulling apart)

folding- compression causes rocks to fold (squeezing)


Where are most faults located?

along plate boundaries (faults)


Identify the layers of Earth and briefly describe each.

inner core- solid iron

outer core- liquid

mantle- plastic and flowing

crust- solid and rocky outer layer


What is seafloor spreading? Identify one location on Earth where it is occurring.

divergent boundary in the ocean, mid-Atlantic ridge, oldest rocks are farther away from the ridge, young rocks are near the ridge


Describe how convection causes Earth’s crustal plates to move.

hot rock rises to top, cools, and sinks.


List some evidence that supports the theory of continental drift.

similar fossils on different continents, continents fit together like a puzzle, South America and Africa are moving farther apart


What is the difference between the focus and epicenter of an earthquake?

focus is below ground, epicenter is above ground


List some types of damage caused by earthquakes.

collapsed buildings and bridges, tsunamis, fires, sandblows, liquefaction


Describe convergent, divergent, and transform boundaries. (Use your tree map)

Convergent- plates come together
oceanic-continental- subduction occurs- causes volcanoes on the edge of both plates, Andes Mountains
continental-continental- plates crumble to form mountains, Himalayas
oceanic-oceanic- plates sink, form trench and island arcs, Japan and Philippines
Divergent- plates spread apart
continental- forms a rift valley and volcanoes, East African Rift
oceanic- seafloor spreading, forms a mid-ocean ridge, Mid-Atlantic Ridge
Transform- plates slide past each other, causes earthquakes, San Andreas Fault


What is Pangaea?

a large supercontinent that existed 200 million years ago


What is subduction and when does it occur?

Subduction occurs when one plate sinks underneath another. It occurs when an oceanic plate converges with a continental plate.


Identify a location of each of the following: mid-ocean ridge, subduction zone, hot spot, continental-continental convergent, divergent continental boundary, transform boundary.

mid-ocean ridge- mid-Atlantic ridge
subduction zone- Andes Mountains, Cascade Mountains (Washington state)
hot spot- Hawaii
continental-continental convergent- Himalayas (Mt. Everest)
continental divergent boundary- East African Rift
transform boundary- San Andreas Fault


Identify the difference between the p-waves, s-waves, & surface waves
Old Material to review

(Primary)p-waves: travels in solid & liquid, fastest & 1st to arrive, stretch & compress as they move up & down in the earth, travel faster in solids than in liquids
(Secondary)s-waves: travel only in solids, 2nd to arrive to arrive, move side to side as they travel up & down in the earth
Surface waves: travel only in the crust, cause the most damage, slowest, last to arrive, move up & down on the surface of earth