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Flashcards in Cells Deck (18):
1

Key functions of the cell membrane

Forms boundary, Separates extracellular vs intracellular with phospholipid bilateral containing proteins
Some proteins(integral) form a tunnel through the wall which permits diffusion

2

Water vs lipid soluble materials entering a cell

Water- typically needs to pass through a protein channel (small) or be carried by a protein into the cell

Lipid- diffuse through the cell wall readily. (Eg steroids like testosterone and oestrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide and fat soluble vitamins)

3

Passive

No energy needed from cell

4

How to speed up diffusion

Heat
Concentration
Smaller molecules

5

Diffusion

Tendency of materials to spread evenly
Kinetic energy in all molecules, they bounce around!
From HIGH concentration migrate to LOW concentration

6

Facilitated diffusion

Needs a protein carrier to help get through the membrane

7

Osmosis

Diffusion of water through a membrane

8

Isotonic

Same concentration as found in cells

9

Hypertonic

Greater concentration then cell
Cell becomes bloated and burst

Big round

10

Hypotonic

Less concentration then cell
Cell shrinks

11

Active transport

Uses energy (ATP) to get in through membranes

12

Phagocytosis

Cell engulfs large or solid material. White blood cells specialised in the to assist cell protection

13

Pinocytosis

Cell ingests small volumes of extracellular fluid

14

Ribosomes

Make protein, for structures or enzymes

15

Rough endoplasmic reticulum

Manufactures all protein transported from cell

16

Nucleus

Control centre, stores chromatin (DNA+protein)
Regulates and controls all cell functions

17

Mitosis

Cell replication and division = 2 cells
Replaces old cells and permits growth

Same genetic material

18

Meiosis

Production of gametes with half number of chromosomes/genes for reproduction
Permits reproduction of the organisms