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Flashcards in Final Exam Deck (78):
1

Synarthrosis

Immovable joint
Eg skull sutures

2

Diarthrosis

Freely movable joint

3

Sprain

Ligaments are stretched, torn, slow to heal due to lack of blood supply

4

Muscle tissue

Contractile( can shorten)
Extensible (can be stretched)
Elastic ( can recoil to original length)

Functions: movement
Posture
Stabilises joints

5

Skeletal muscle

Striated, Voluntary, rapid but tires

6

Cardiac muscle

Striated, involuntary, with branched fibres, and intercalated disks. Cardiac muscle is only found within the heart

7

Smooth muscle

Doesn't have striations or bands, is involuntary, with cylindrical fibres, which undergo continuous slow contractions

8

Origin

Less movable bone

9

Instertion

More movable bone

10

Contraction

Actin and myosin slide past each other

11

Skeletal muscle contraction cycle

1. Ca exposes binding site
2. Myosin cross bridge attaches to actin
3. Powerstroke, slide past
4. Myosin cross bridge detached due to ATP
5. Myosin head "cocked" by ATP

12

Depolarisation

Reduction
Membrane is less negative, -79 to -40 mv

13

Hypetpolarisation

Increase
Membrane is more negative, -70 to -80 mv

14

Action potential

Axon generates it by opening and closing gates for ions. Allowing Na and K to move through the membrane, changing its charge

15

Left brain

Controls language, logic and maths

16

Right side of brain

Controls intuition, emotion, creative

17

Thalamus

Sorts/ edits sensory information

18

Hypothalamus

Connects directly to pituitary. Homeostasis and endocrine control.

19

Midbrain

Connections cerebrum/ cerebellum

20

Pons

A relay between cerebellum and motor cortex, contains the respiratory centre

21

Medulla oblongata

Vital control areas for key systems such as cardiovascular centre, respiratory centre

22

Cerebellum

Influenced the pattern and timing of muscle contraction via subconscious to make smooth fluid movements

23

Central nervous system

Comprises brain and spinal cord
It's functions is integration and command centre

24

Cerebral hemisphere

Form 83% of the brain mass: they are made of gyri (folds) and sulci (grooves)

25

The endocrine system

Uses glands that secrete directly to interstitial fluid or blood stream
Is a control or regulatory system

26

What endocrine system can regulate

-cellular metabolism and energy balance
- body fluid and ion(electrolyte) concentrations and nutrients
-cellular and body growth and development
-immune system and body defense
-reproduction

27

Where to find endocrine glands

Pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal

28

Where to find endocrine tissues

Pancreas, gonads and hypothalamus

29

Hormones

Are chemical messengers
Either amino-acid based hormones(need second messengers to get through cell membrane) or steroids ( diffuse through cell membrane)lipid

30

Hormones are very specific

They are targeted to bind to specific protein receptors
If the cell hasn't got a receptor, no matter how much hormone is present, no action will occur.

31

Endocrine glands can be stimulated in three ways

Humoral- by changes in blood levels of a nutrient

Neural- by nerve fibres directly

Hormonal- by other hormones to stimulate release of hormone

32

Right side pump of heart

Venous blood from body and heart to the lungs ( deoxygenated)

33

Left side pump of heart

Oxygenated blood from lungs to body and heart

34

Left atrium

Blood from lungs via pulmonary veins

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Right atrium

Blood from body via superior and inferior vena cavae

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Left ventricle

Pumps blood to body via the aorta

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Right ventricle

Pumps blood to the lungs via the pulmonary trunk

38

Valves

Guide blood flow through the heart in one direction

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Atrioventricular valves

Control blood from the atrium into the ventricle for each side

40

Pathway of blood through the heart

Entry: venous blood enters the right atrium ( from vena cavae)

Exit: blood fills the right ventricle and is pumped by the pulmonary trunk to the lungs

Entry: after oxygenation in lung, blood returns to the heart(left atrium) by pulmonary veins.

Exit: left atrium fills the left ventricle the oxygenated blood leaves the heart via the aorta.

41

Benefits of aerobic exercise

Improve oxygen delivery and utilisation ( more capillaries, more efficient fibres due to more mitochondria, myoglobin and oxidative enzymes)

42

The wall of the stomach contains

Parietal cells which secrete HCI ( 100,00x more acidic than blood)

Chief cells which secrete pepsinogen, to digest protein

43

Small intestines

Main role is absorption
Secreted alkaline mucus to neutralise stomach acid

Enzymes complete carbohydrate and protein digestion

44

Pancreas

Is two glands in one and secretes digestive enzymes

45

Large intestines

Mainly for water absorbtion

46

Nutrient rich blood from intestines

Nutrient rich blood is directed directly to the liver for filtering and processing

47

Liver

Functions: carb storage and release, protein syntheses and detoxification

Blood from portal vein inflows to liver to deliver nutrients direct from gut

48

Nutrient

Chemical substance that provides nourishment for the body (metabolic processes)

49

Essential nutrients

Something the body needs but can't make itself

50

Metabolism

Biochemical reaction inside cells

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Catabolism

Metabolic reactions inducing substance breakdown

52

Anabolism

Metabolic reactions inducing substance build up

53

Carbs

Sourced from plants in diet( vegetables, fruit and grain)
Provides glucose and simple sugars for energy and fibre

54

Lipids

Source from animal products ( meat, eggs dairy) and oils
Use for absorbing fat soluble vitamins feel for liver and skeletal muscle, energy store

55

Protein

Mainly from animal sources but the legumes, nuts and cereals can also provide.
Use for making body tissues and signs, can't synthesise essential amino acids so need to ingest them.

56

Vitamins

Most act as co-enzymes which assist enzymes to act as catalysts. A DEK of fat-soluble and B and C are water-soluble.

57

Minerals

Calcium phosphorus potassium sulfur sodium chlorine magnesium are needed in moderate amounts.

58

What is the importance of maintaining glucose availability for ATP production

Glucose availability is regulated by insulin and glucagon hormones (made in pancreas) as ATP can't be stored

59

Body fluid

Controlled by kidneys in combination with hormones and it neural controls

60

Intracellular fluid

Inside cells- cytoplasms

61

Extracellular fluid

Outside cells- spaces between cells

62

B-lymphocytes

Form plasma cells to make antibodies and form memory cells

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Antibodies

Immobilise antigens for destruction

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Macrophages

Phagocytise/ eat foreign materials and "activate" T-lymphocytes

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T-lymphocytes

Manage immune response, some direct attach of infected cells

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Regulatory T-lymphocytes

Turn off immune response ( prevent over response) t

67

Phagocytes

Gobble or ear foreign cells/materials

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Antigens

Are chemical (proteins) that are recognised as 'non self'

69

External Nonspecific (innate) immunity


Acts irrespective of invading substance
Skin- barrier against weak acids/ based, bacterial enzymes.
Mucous-(lines all cavities that connect to external body surfaces)

70

Internal nonspecific (innate) immunity

Phagocytes eat invaders
Kill cells
Inflammation- prevents spread of antigens, destroys pathogens

71

Specific (adaptive) defences

Recognises and only acts against specific pathogens or immunological substances
Has memory ( increase responses on reactivation)

72

Hypothalamus in male reproductive systems

Secretes GnRH

GnRH stimulates secretion of FSH and LH from anterior pituitary

FSH stimulates testis to increase speed number

LH stimulates leydig cells to make testosterone

73

Action potential

1. All gated k+ and Na+ channels closed
2. Depolarisation: Na+ flows in
3. Depolarisation: Na+ channels close, K+ channel open
4. Undershoot ( too many K+ lost)

74

Pre central gyrus

Location of primary motor cortex

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Post-central gyrus

Location of the primary sensory cortex

76

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)

Surrounds brain and permits it to float.
Is made in choroid plexuses and drained by arachnoid villi

77

Motor nerve in spine

Ventral/ anterior horn
Grey matter

78

Cell body of sensory nerve in spine

In dorsal root ganglion