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Combined Science GCSE: Biology > Cells And Control > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cells And Control Deck (42)
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What are chromosomes?

Coiled up lengths of DNA molecules found in the nucleus


What is a diploid cell?

Cell with two copies of each chromosome


What kind of cells undergo the cell cycle?

Body cells in multicellular organisms


What’s mitosis?

The stage of cell cycle when the cell divides. Organisms use mitosis to grow or replace damaged cells or to asexually reproduce


What happens in interphase?

DNA is spread out in long strings, cell growing to increase number of sub-cellular structures. DNA duplicates and forms x shaped chromosomes with identical left and right arms


Describe the events of Mitosis and Cytokenisis

1; prophase: chromosomes condense, lie free in cytoplasm as membrane around nucleus breaks down
2; metaphase: chromosomes form a line at centre of cell
3; anaphase: cell fibres pull chromosomes apart, each arm of each chromosome go to opposite ends of cell
4; telophase: membranes form around each of the sets of chromosomes (these become nuclei of new cells)
cytokinesis; before telophase ends cytoplasm and cell membrane divide to form two separate cells


What does mitosis produce?

Two genetically identical diploid cells


What’s the equation to calculate number of cells after multiple divisions of a cell by mitosis?

Number of cells = 2^number of divisions by mitosis


What is growth?

An increase in size or mass


What’s cell differentiation?

Cell changes to become specialised, allowing multicellular organisms to work more efficiently


How is cell division done?

By mitosis


How do plants grow?

By cell elongation. Plant cells expand, so plant grows. Cell division happens in tips of roots and shoots. Plants grow continuously and continue to differentiate to develop new parts


How do animals grow?

By cell division. In most animals cell differentiation is lost at an early age and cell division for growth stops when animal reaches full growth


Hows cancer caused?

Gene controlling cell division mutates, cells divide uncontrollably, tumour is caused


What do growth percentile charts do? How do they work?

Assess a child’s growth over time, show an overall pattern of development. Three main measurements taken are length, mass and head circumference
The chart shows number of percentiles eg 50th percentile means the mass 50% of babies would’ve reached at a certain age
Doctors are likely to investigate if babies size are above top of below bottom percentile line, size increases/ decreases by 2 or more percentiles or there’s an inconsistent pattern


What are stem cells?

Unspecialised/ undifferentiated cells


What can stem cells do?

Divide by mitosis to become new cells which then differentiate. In adults, they’re found in certain places eg bone marrow, and are used to replace damaged cells


What are embryonic stem cells?

Found in embryos, they have the potential to divide and become any type of cell. They are essential for the growth and development of organisms


Where are unspecialised cells found in plants and what do they do?

They’re found in meristem tissue, which is found in areas of plants that are growing. The unspecialised cells meristems produce can divide into any cell type and can do this for as long as the plant lives. Unspecialised cells can form unspecialised tissues


What are potential risks of stem cell treatment?

Tumour development, disease transmission, rejection, ethical issues


What are neurones?

Nerve cells


What are sensory receptors?

Group of cells that detect a stimulus. Different receptors detect different stimulus


What’s a stimulus?

A change in your environment


What happens when a stimulus is detected by your receptors?

Its converted to a nervous (electrical) impulse and sent along sensory neurones to CNS


What’s CNS consist of?

Brain and spinal cord


What’s reaction time?

Time taken to respond to stimulus


List the path of the nervous system

Stimulus > receptor > sensory neurone > CNS > motor neurone > effector > response


What do dendrites and dendrons do?

Carry nerve impulses towards cell body


What are axons?

Carry impulses away from cell body
Some axons surrounded by myelin sheath: acts as electrical insulator, speeds up the electrical impulse


How does a sensory neurone work?

1 long dendron carries nerve impulses from receptor cells to cell body, located in middle of neurone. 1 short axon carries impulses from cell body to CNS