Cells And Tissues Flashcards Preview

A And P > Cells And Tissues > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cells And Tissues Deck (105):
0

What is the correct order of higher organisms from small to large

Cell - tissue - organ - system - organism

1

Name 5 cell components

Membrane
Cytoplasm
Organelles
Nuclear region
Cytoskeleton

2

What is the cell membrane involved in?

Integrity, signalling

3

What is cytoplasm involved in?

The biological process

4

Which part of the cell can be described as "specialised compartments"?

Organelles

5

Which region of the cell contains hereditary material?

The nuclear region

6

Cytoskeleton is involved in...

Movement and strength

7

Eukaryotes are found in what type of organisms?

Multi cellular organisms

8

What are the properties of eukaryotic cells?

- nucleus with DNA
- 10-40 um
- extensive organelles

9

Prokaryotic cells belong to which type of organisms?

Single cell organisms

10

What are the properties of prokaryotic cells?

- no nucleus
- smaller in size, 1-5 um
- hereditary material in cytoplasm
- no organelles
- cell wall and capsule

11

What is the purpose/function of the plasma membrane?

- defines boundaries
- interacts with other cells
- selectively permeable
- maintains cellular homeostasis

12

What is the cell membrane composed of?

90-99% lipids and 1-10% proteins

13

What is cytosol?

Viscous fluid made up of water ions and proteins in which organelles are suspended

14

What is the cytoplasm?

Cytosol and organelles

15

Define organelles

Discrete structures that have a defined function

16

What does the nucleus contain?

DNA and RNA

17

What is mitosis?

Cell division necessary for growth, regeneration

18

What is meiosis?

Cell division necessary for sexual reproduction

19

Protein synthesis happens in which part of the endoplasmic reticulum?

Rough

20

Which part of the endoplasmic reticulum is used for lipid synthesis?

Smooth

21

What is the purpose of the Golgi complex?

Carbohydrate modification

22

Mitochondria are the site of what?

ATP synthesis

23

Do mitochondria contain DNA?

Yes

24

What is the purpose of lysosomes?

Breakdown small food stuffs, destroy unwanted proteins and chemicals

25

What do secretly granules do?

Release products into the circulation eg insulin into the blood
Bind to plasma membrane and contents is released by exocytosis

26

Define tissue

Aggregation of cells with a specialised structure and or function

27

Name 4 basic tissues

Epithelium
Connective
Muscle
Neural

28

Which tissue is for covering?

Epithelium

29

Which tissue is for support?

Connective

30

Which tissue is for movement?

Muscle

31

Which tissue is for communication and control

Neural

32

What are the functions of epithelia?

Provide a protective barrier
Control absorption and secretion

33

What does epithelia line?

Internal and external surfaces of organs
Linings of cavities and tubes

34

How are epithelial cells classified?

Shape and number of cell layers

35

Flat surface cells which are one layer thick are known as...

Simple squamous epithelial cells

36

What is the function of simple, squamous, epithelial cells?

Exchange of nutrients and gases

37

Where would you find simple squamous epithelial cells?

Alveoli, blood vessels

38

Flat surface cells with many layers are known as

Stratified squamous

39

What is the function of stratified squamous cells?

Protection, barrier

40

Where would you find stratified squamous cells?

Oral cavity, anus, vadge, oesophagus, skin

41

What are flat surface cells with many layers and keratin?

Keratinised stratified squamous cells

42

What is the major function of keratinised stratified squamous cells?

Protection barrier waterproofing

43

Where would you find keratinised stratified squamous cells?

Skin, hair, footpads of animals

44

What is simple cuboidal epithelium?

One layer, cuboid cells

45

What is the function of simple cuboidal epithelium?

Secretion and absorption

46

Where would you find simple cuboidal epithelium?

Glands, kidney tubules

47

What is simple columnar epithelium?

One layer, tall cells with basally located nuclei

48

What is the function of simple columnar epithelium?

Absorption and secretion

49

Where would you find simple columnar epithelium?

GI tract

50

What is modified simple columnar epithelium?

One layer, tall cells with basally located nuclei, may have surface modifications such as microvilli

51

What is the function of modified simple columnar epithelium?

Absorption and secretion

52

Where would you find modified simple columnar epithelium?

In the GI tract

53

What is complex columnar epithelium?

Appears stratified, all cells touch basement membrane, modifications - cilia, goblet celts

54

What are the functions of complex columnar epithelium?

Mucocilliary escalator

55

Where would you find complex columnar epithelium?

Trachea and large respiratory airways

56

How are cells allowed to communicate with one another?

Specialised areas of the cell membrane bind one cell to another

57

How is connective tissue defined?

Connective tissue and specialised connective tissue

58

Supporting tissue is a type of...

Connective tissue

59

Name 4 types of proper and fluid connective tissue

Bone and cartilage
Ligaments
Adipocytes
Blood

60

What is within the nucleus?

The nucleolus

61

What is the nucleolus involved in?

Manufacture of ribosomes

62

Which organs have more mitochondria?

Liver, muscle, spermatozoa

63

Mitochondria are involved in what kind of respiration?

Aerobic

64

What is he job of ribosomes?

Synthesise proteins from amino acids using RNA as the template. For use within the cell including enzymes required for metabolism.

65

Where else in the cell would you find ribosomes?

Outside the nuclear envelope and in the rough endoplasmic reticulum

66

Describe the endoplasmic reticulum

Series of interconnecting membranous canals in the cytoplasm

67

What are the 2 different types of endoplasmic reticulum?

Rough and smooth

68

Which part of the endoplasmic reticulum synthesises steroids?

Smooth

69

The smooth endoplasmic reticulum is associated with

The detoxification of some drugs

70

Some of the lipids from the SER are used for what?

To replace and repair the plasma membrane and the membrane of organelles

71

What does the Golgi complex consist of?

Stacks of closely folded flattened membranous sacs

72

Which cells are the Golgi complex larger in?

Those that synthesise and export proteins

73

What happens to proteins in the Golgi complex?

Packaged into membrane bound vesicles called secretory granules. Stored, then when needed move to the plasma membrane and fuse with it. The contents then leave by exocytosis

74

What forms lysosomes?

The Golgi apparatus

75

Name 4 elements of the cytoskeleton

Micro filaments, micro tubules, centrosome, cell extensions

76

Name 3 cell extensions

Microvilli, cilia, flagella - sperm

77

Describe the structure of the cell membrane

2 layers of phospholipids with protein and sugar molecules embedded inside. Proteins travel through the membrane providing channels for the passage of electrolytes and non lipid soluble substances. Molecules have a hydrophilic head on the outside and a hydrophobic tail on the inside, arranged like a sandwich, influencing he transfer of substances.

78

Name 4 membrane protein functions

Carbohydrate molecules give cell immunological identity
Act on specific receptors for hormones and other chemical messengers
Some enzymes
Some involved in transport across the membrane

79

Which is the most abundant tissue in the body?

Connective tissue

80

What is present in connective tissue in larger amounts?

Matrix

81

What are the 4 major functions of connective tissue?

Binding and structural support
Protection
Transport
Insulation

82

Name 8 types of connective tissue

Loose, brown and white adipose, lymphoid tissue, dense connective, blood, cartilage, bone

83

Loose connective tissue is made up of...

Many fibroblasts and some fat cells, elastic and collagen fibres.

84

What are the functions of loose connective tissue?

Connects and supports other tissues,

85

Where is loose connective tissue found?

Under the skin, between muscles, supporting blood vessels and nerves, in the alimentary canal, in glands supporting secretory cells.

86

What does white adipose tissue support?

Kidneys and eyes

87

What is the function of white adipose tissue?

Insulator and energy store

88

Where would you find brown adipose tissue?

In newborns

89

What is the difference in brown adipose tissue to white?

Brown had more capillaries, less energy and more heat

90

Where is lymphoid tissue found and what does it contain?

White cells and reticular cells, found in lymph nodes.

91

What are the 2 types of dense connective tissue?

Fibrous tissue and elastic tissue

92

What is fibrous tissue made up of and where is it found?

Closely packed bundles of collagen with very little matrix, found in ligaments, periosteum, outer protective layer of kidneys, lymph nodes and brain.

93

What is elastic tissue capable of and where is it found?

Extension and recoil, found in organs where stretching is required eg lungs, trachea

94

Name the 3 types of cartilage

Hyelin, fibrocartilage and elastic fibre

95

What are the cells found in cartilage called?

Chondrocytes

96

Where would you find hyelin?

Ends of long bones

97

Which cartilage has a lot of collagen in it?

Fibrocartilage

98

Where would you find elastic fibre?

Earlobe

99

Define homeostasis

Maintenance of a constant internal environment

100

Describe the negative feedback mechanism

Sensor - afferent pathways - integrating centre - efferent pathways - effector - change in variable - sensor

101

Illustrate how body temp is controlled by negative feedback

Low temp - Sensors in skin and brain - afferent pathways - hypothalamus, efferent pathways - effector = hairs stand, vasoconstriction, shiver, - change in variable - sensor = normal body temp

High temp - sensors in skin and brain - afferent pathway - hypothalamus - efferent pathways - effector = blood vessels dilate! sweat gland secrete fluid - change in variable - sensor = normal body temp

102

What happens in positive feedback?

Stimulus gradually increases response, as long as stimulus is continued the response gets progressively more

103

List 6 physiological variables controlled by negative feedback

Temperature
Blood pressure
Water balance
Glucose levels
PH balance
02 and C02 levels

104

Name 2 examples of positive feedback mechanisms

Child birth - oxytocin stimulates contractions, foetus head pushes on cervix = more oxytocin
Blood clotting - activation of clotting factors - thrombin positive feedback to more clotting factors