Flashcards in Cells And Tissues Deck (105):
What is the correct order of higher organisms from small to large
Cell - tissue - organ - system - organism
Name 5 cell components
What is the cell membrane involved in?
What is cytoplasm involved in?
The biological process
Which part of the cell can be described as "specialised compartments"?
Which region of the cell contains hereditary material?
The nuclear region
Cytoskeleton is involved in...
Movement and strength
Eukaryotes are found in what type of organisms?
Multi cellular organisms
What are the properties of eukaryotic cells?
- nucleus with DNA
- 10-40 um
- extensive organelles
Prokaryotic cells belong to which type of organisms?
Single cell organisms
What are the properties of prokaryotic cells?
- no nucleus
- smaller in size, 1-5 um
- hereditary material in cytoplasm
- no organelles
- cell wall and capsule
What is the purpose/function of the plasma membrane?
- defines boundaries
- interacts with other cells
- selectively permeable
- maintains cellular homeostasis
What is the cell membrane composed of?
90-99% lipids and 1-10% proteins
What is cytosol?
Viscous fluid made up of water ions and proteins in which organelles are suspended
What is the cytoplasm?
Cytosol and organelles
Discrete structures that have a defined function
What does the nucleus contain?
DNA and RNA
What is mitosis?
Cell division necessary for growth, regeneration
What is meiosis?
Cell division necessary for sexual reproduction
Protein synthesis happens in which part of the endoplasmic reticulum?
Which part of the endoplasmic reticulum is used for lipid synthesis?
What is the purpose of the Golgi complex?
Mitochondria are the site of what?
Do mitochondria contain DNA?
What is the purpose of lysosomes?
Breakdown small food stuffs, destroy unwanted proteins and chemicals
What do secretly granules do?
Release products into the circulation eg insulin into the blood
Bind to plasma membrane and contents is released by exocytosis
Aggregation of cells with a specialised structure and or function
Name 4 basic tissues
Which tissue is for covering?
Which tissue is for support?
Which tissue is for movement?
Which tissue is for communication and control
What are the functions of epithelia?
Provide a protective barrier
Control absorption and secretion
What does epithelia line?
Internal and external surfaces of organs
Linings of cavities and tubes
How are epithelial cells classified?
Shape and number of cell layers
Flat surface cells which are one layer thick are known as...
Simple squamous epithelial cells
What is the function of simple, squamous, epithelial cells?
Exchange of nutrients and gases
Where would you find simple squamous epithelial cells?
Alveoli, blood vessels
Flat surface cells with many layers are known as
What is the function of stratified squamous cells?
Where would you find stratified squamous cells?
Oral cavity, anus, vadge, oesophagus, skin
What are flat surface cells with many layers and keratin?
Keratinised stratified squamous cells
What is the major function of keratinised stratified squamous cells?
Protection barrier waterproofing
Where would you find keratinised stratified squamous cells?
Skin, hair, footpads of animals
What is simple cuboidal epithelium?
One layer, cuboid cells
What is the function of simple cuboidal epithelium?
Secretion and absorption
Where would you find simple cuboidal epithelium?
Glands, kidney tubules
What is simple columnar epithelium?
One layer, tall cells with basally located nuclei
What is the function of simple columnar epithelium?
Absorption and secretion
Where would you find simple columnar epithelium?
What is modified simple columnar epithelium?
One layer, tall cells with basally located nuclei, may have surface modifications such as microvilli
What is the function of modified simple columnar epithelium?
Absorption and secretion
Where would you find modified simple columnar epithelium?
In the GI tract
What is complex columnar epithelium?
Appears stratified, all cells touch basement membrane, modifications - cilia, goblet celts
What are the functions of complex columnar epithelium?
Where would you find complex columnar epithelium?
Trachea and large respiratory airways
How are cells allowed to communicate with one another?
Specialised areas of the cell membrane bind one cell to another
How is connective tissue defined?
Connective tissue and specialised connective tissue
Supporting tissue is a type of...
Name 4 types of proper and fluid connective tissue
Bone and cartilage
What is within the nucleus?
What is the nucleolus involved in?
Manufacture of ribosomes
Which organs have more mitochondria?
Liver, muscle, spermatozoa
Mitochondria are involved in what kind of respiration?
What is he job of ribosomes?
Synthesise proteins from amino acids using RNA as the template. For use within the cell including enzymes required for metabolism.
Where else in the cell would you find ribosomes?
Outside the nuclear envelope and in the rough endoplasmic reticulum
Describe the endoplasmic reticulum
Series of interconnecting membranous canals in the cytoplasm
What are the 2 different types of endoplasmic reticulum?
Rough and smooth
Which part of the endoplasmic reticulum synthesises steroids?
The smooth endoplasmic reticulum is associated with
The detoxification of some drugs
Some of the lipids from the SER are used for what?
To replace and repair the plasma membrane and the membrane of organelles
What does the Golgi complex consist of?
Stacks of closely folded flattened membranous sacs
Which cells are the Golgi complex larger in?
Those that synthesise and export proteins
What happens to proteins in the Golgi complex?
Packaged into membrane bound vesicles called secretory granules. Stored, then when needed move to the plasma membrane and fuse with it. The contents then leave by exocytosis
What forms lysosomes?
The Golgi apparatus
Name 4 elements of the cytoskeleton
Micro filaments, micro tubules, centrosome, cell extensions
Name 3 cell extensions
Microvilli, cilia, flagella - sperm
Describe the structure of the cell membrane
2 layers of phospholipids with protein and sugar molecules embedded inside. Proteins travel through the membrane providing channels for the passage of electrolytes and non lipid soluble substances. Molecules have a hydrophilic head on the outside and a hydrophobic tail on the inside, arranged like a sandwich, influencing he transfer of substances.
Name 4 membrane protein functions
Carbohydrate molecules give cell immunological identity
Act on specific receptors for hormones and other chemical messengers
Some involved in transport across the membrane
Which is the most abundant tissue in the body?
What is present in connective tissue in larger amounts?
What are the 4 major functions of connective tissue?
Binding and structural support
Name 8 types of connective tissue
Loose, brown and white adipose, lymphoid tissue, dense connective, blood, cartilage, bone
Loose connective tissue is made up of...
Many fibroblasts and some fat cells, elastic and collagen fibres.
What are the functions of loose connective tissue?
Connects and supports other tissues,
Where is loose connective tissue found?
Under the skin, between muscles, supporting blood vessels and nerves, in the alimentary canal, in glands supporting secretory cells.
What does white adipose tissue support?
Kidneys and eyes
What is the function of white adipose tissue?
Insulator and energy store
Where would you find brown adipose tissue?
What is the difference in brown adipose tissue to white?
Brown had more capillaries, less energy and more heat
Where is lymphoid tissue found and what does it contain?
White cells and reticular cells, found in lymph nodes.
What are the 2 types of dense connective tissue?
Fibrous tissue and elastic tissue
What is fibrous tissue made up of and where is it found?
Closely packed bundles of collagen with very little matrix, found in ligaments, periosteum, outer protective layer of kidneys, lymph nodes and brain.
What is elastic tissue capable of and where is it found?
Extension and recoil, found in organs where stretching is required eg lungs, trachea
Name the 3 types of cartilage
Hyelin, fibrocartilage and elastic fibre
What are the cells found in cartilage called?
Where would you find hyelin?
Ends of long bones
Which cartilage has a lot of collagen in it?
Where would you find elastic fibre?
Maintenance of a constant internal environment
Describe the negative feedback mechanism
Sensor - afferent pathways - integrating centre - efferent pathways - effector - change in variable - sensor
Illustrate how body temp is controlled by negative feedback
Low temp - Sensors in skin and brain - afferent pathways - hypothalamus, efferent pathways - effector = hairs stand, vasoconstriction, shiver, - change in variable - sensor = normal body temp
High temp - sensors in skin and brain - afferent pathway - hypothalamus - efferent pathways - effector = blood vessels dilate! sweat gland secrete fluid - change in variable - sensor = normal body temp
What happens in positive feedback?
Stimulus gradually increases response, as long as stimulus is continued the response gets progressively more
List 6 physiological variables controlled by negative feedback
02 and C02 levels