Immonology And Defense Flashcards Preview

A And P > Immonology And Defense > Flashcards

Flashcards in Immonology And Defense Deck (48):
0

Name 5 white blood cells?

Lymphocytes, monocytes, neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils

1

What 3 cells do you find in the lymph node?

Para cortex - T cells
T and B lymphocytes
Dendritic cells

2

What four immune system cells do you find in the tissues?

T lymphocytes, dendritic cells, mast cells, macrophages

3

What is the outer capsule of lymph node made put of and what does it dip down into?

Fibrous tissue, dips down into the node substance forming partitions or trabeculae

4

What does the main substance of the lymph node consist of?

Reticular and connective tissue containing lymphocytes and macrophages

5

How many afferent vessels may enter the lymph node and how man efferent vessels leave?

4 or 5 enter, only 1 leaves

6

Where does lymph from the upper nodes pass though?

Nodes in the elbow region then through the deep and superficial axillary nodes

7

Where does lymph from organs and tissues in the thoracic cavity drain to?

Groups of nodes situated in the mediastrium, large airways oesophagus and chest wall.

8

Where does most of the lymph from the breast tissues pass through?

The axillary nodes

9

Where does lymph from he pelvic and abdominal cavities pass through and enter?

Through many lymph nodes before entering the cisterna chyli.

10

The abdominal and pelvic nodes are situated mainly in association with what?

Blood vessels supplying organs close to the main arteries I.e the aorta and external and internal iliac arterys

11

Where does the lymph from the lower limbs drain through?

Deep and superficial nodes including groups of nodes behind the knee and in the groin

12

What is mucosa associated lymphoid tissue?

Collections of lymphoid tissue, not enclosed with a capsule

13

What does MALT contain?

B and T lymphocytes

14

What doesn't MALT have?

Nob afferent lymphatic vessels

15

What 6 things constitute the lymphatic system?

Lymph vessels, lymph, lymph nodes, MALT, lymph organs, bone marrow

16

What is the role of the lymph system with metastasis

Tumour cells enter lymph drains tumour, first lymph node they get into they multiply, then spread to other lymph nodes or blood stream

17

What are the 2 major classes of lymphocytes?

T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes

18

Where are t lymphocytes manufactured?

Bone marrow

19

What are t lymphocytes programmed by the thymus to do?

Recognise only e type of antigen and provide cell mediated immunity

20

List the 4 types of T cells

Memory T cells, cytotoxic T cells, helper T cells, suppressor T cells.

21

Where are B lymphocytes produced and processed?

Bone marrow

22

What do b lymphocytes produce?

Antibodies

23

Where would you find b lymphocytes?

Mostly in the spleen and lymph nodes

24

What happens when a b lymphocyte meets something foreign?

Produce an anti body which kills it

25

Name 2 types of b lymphocytes

Plasma cell and memory B cell

26

What do neutrophils kill bacteria by?

Phagocytosis

27

What do the granules in neutrophils contain?

Lysosomes

28

What happens when basophils meet with an allergen?

They release heparin or histamine

29

What do eosinophils contain?

Toxic chemicals

30

Which is the largest of the WBCs?

Monocytes

31

What do monocytes produce and what does this do?

Interleukin 1 which acts on the hypothalamus causing a rise in temperature associated with infections

32

What is the other name for a helper t lymphocyte cell?

CD4 cell

33

What do CD4'cells do?

Help active macrophages, release anti body responses

34

What do CD8 cells do?

Get rid of virally infected host cells

35

What is the other name for a cd8 cell?

T- cytotoxic cell

36

What is the importance of the cell membrane in regards to protection?

Protects body from threats

37

What are the 5 cardinal signs of inflammation?

Redness, swelling, pain, heat, pus

38

What three things could cause an inflammatory response?

Virus, chemicals, heat

39

What is the cause of the redness, swelling and temperature increase?

Increased blood supply to damaged cells

40

Which is he first leukocyte into an area of inflammation?

Neutrophil

41

What causes the pus after 24hours?

Macrophages

42

What causes the fever, fatigue and loss of appetite?

Interleukin 1

43

What is innate immunity?

Own internal mechanism of defense eg physical barriers like skin.

44

Name 6 components of innate immunity?

HCL in stomach, lysosomes, anti bodies, acid saliva, proteins, phagocytes

45

What is acquired immunity?

Beta cells and anti body mediated immunity - when born no immunity to virus and disease get it when you are older

46

Why do we have imms and vacs as a child?

No immunity when born - acquired as you get older

47

What does physiotherapy in lymphatic re - anastomoses encourage?

Lymph fluid to move along through massage, join lymph vessel to a vein and lymph fluid massaged to vein