Flashcards in Immonology And Defense Deck (48):
Name 5 white blood cells?
Lymphocytes, monocytes, neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils
What 3 cells do you find in the lymph node?
Para cortex - T cells
T and B lymphocytes
What four immune system cells do you find in the tissues?
T lymphocytes, dendritic cells, mast cells, macrophages
What is the outer capsule of lymph node made put of and what does it dip down into?
Fibrous tissue, dips down into the node substance forming partitions or trabeculae
What does the main substance of the lymph node consist of?
Reticular and connective tissue containing lymphocytes and macrophages
How many afferent vessels may enter the lymph node and how man efferent vessels leave?
4 or 5 enter, only 1 leaves
Where does lymph from the upper nodes pass though?
Nodes in the elbow region then through the deep and superficial axillary nodes
Where does lymph from organs and tissues in the thoracic cavity drain to?
Groups of nodes situated in the mediastrium, large airways oesophagus and chest wall.
Where does most of the lymph from the breast tissues pass through?
The axillary nodes
Where does lymph from he pelvic and abdominal cavities pass through and enter?
Through many lymph nodes before entering the cisterna chyli.
The abdominal and pelvic nodes are situated mainly in association with what?
Blood vessels supplying organs close to the main arteries I.e the aorta and external and internal iliac arterys
Where does the lymph from the lower limbs drain through?
Deep and superficial nodes including groups of nodes behind the knee and in the groin
What is mucosa associated lymphoid tissue?
Collections of lymphoid tissue, not enclosed with a capsule
What does MALT contain?
B and T lymphocytes
What doesn't MALT have?
Nob afferent lymphatic vessels
What 6 things constitute the lymphatic system?
Lymph vessels, lymph, lymph nodes, MALT, lymph organs, bone marrow
What is the role of the lymph system with metastasis
Tumour cells enter lymph drains tumour, first lymph node they get into they multiply, then spread to other lymph nodes or blood stream
What are the 2 major classes of lymphocytes?
T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes
Where are t lymphocytes manufactured?
What are t lymphocytes programmed by the thymus to do?
Recognise only e type of antigen and provide cell mediated immunity
List the 4 types of T cells
Memory T cells, cytotoxic T cells, helper T cells, suppressor T cells.
Where are B lymphocytes produced and processed?
What do b lymphocytes produce?
Where would you find b lymphocytes?
Mostly in the spleen and lymph nodes
What happens when a b lymphocyte meets something foreign?
Produce an anti body which kills it
Name 2 types of b lymphocytes
Plasma cell and memory B cell
What do neutrophils kill bacteria by?
What do the granules in neutrophils contain?
What happens when basophils meet with an allergen?
They release heparin or histamine
What do eosinophils contain?
Which is the largest of the WBCs?
What do monocytes produce and what does this do?
Interleukin 1 which acts on the hypothalamus causing a rise in temperature associated with infections
What is the other name for a helper t lymphocyte cell?
What do CD4'cells do?
Help active macrophages, release anti body responses
What do CD8 cells do?
Get rid of virally infected host cells
What is the other name for a cd8 cell?
T- cytotoxic cell
What is the importance of the cell membrane in regards to protection?
Protects body from threats
What are the 5 cardinal signs of inflammation?
Redness, swelling, pain, heat, pus
What three things could cause an inflammatory response?
Virus, chemicals, heat
What is the cause of the redness, swelling and temperature increase?
Increased blood supply to damaged cells
Which is he first leukocyte into an area of inflammation?
What causes the pus after 24hours?
What causes the fever, fatigue and loss of appetite?
What is innate immunity?
Own internal mechanism of defense eg physical barriers like skin.
Name 6 components of innate immunity?
HCL in stomach, lysosomes, anti bodies, acid saliva, proteins, phagocytes
What is acquired immunity?
Beta cells and anti body mediated immunity - when born no immunity to virus and disease get it when you are older
Why do we have imms and vacs as a child?
No immunity when born - acquired as you get older