Flashcards in Cells of Repair and Inflammation (Kyle) Deck (71)
What is the main fiber of the extracellular matrix?
What type of cell is a key player in tissue repair?
What is a fibroblast? No not restate the question you just answered
A fibrobast is a ubiquitous long lived cell that produces the interstitial ground substance of supporting tissues throughout the body
Can fibroblasts differentiate into different types of cells, if so what would they be?
Osteocytes, Chondrocytes, adipocytes.
Can fibroblasts differntiate into epithelial cells?
What is the function of the fibrous tissue they produce?
Form a scar
What happens to a wound during the process of healing?
What are contractile proteins that fibroblasts contain?
Do scars retain the specialized function of the tissues that they replace?
What is an inactive fibroblast called?
What is a neutrophil?
Neutrophils are also called polymorphonuclear leukocytes. They are the first responder phagocytes
What is the predominant white clood cell type in acute inflammation?
What is acute inflammation ?
In addition to responding to inflamation what else do neurophils respond to?
Can neutrophils be part of chronic inflammation?
Yes, because they respond to necrosis.
What is acute on chronic inflammation?
Also called sportive inflammation
Are neurophils leukocytes or granulocytes?
Neutrophils are among the types of leukocytes with granules (Granulocytes)
What type of granules do neutrophils contain ?
Describe a hyper-segmented nucleus
A nucleus that is segmented into 6 or more lobes are hyper-segmented.
What type of cells are associated with megaloblastic anemia and what causes this?
Hypersegmented neutrophils are associated with megaloblastic anemia and it is caused by vitamin B12 or folate deficiency.
What are immature or adolescent neutrophils?
Are bands capable of phagocytosis?
What is a situation where bands can be released into the cytoplasm?
When a person has a severe infection the bone marrow will release bands into the blood in increasing numbers.
What is this phenomena called?
What is the term describing the increased number of immature leukocytes in the blood?
Do corticosteroids cause left shift or bandemia?
What is the condition when neutrophils are above their normal limit?
An abnormal increase in the number of neutrophils is indicative of what (even if the white count is normal) ?
What type of cell is the first responder phagocyte and is crucial in the rapid innate immune system response to acute infection?
Describe the progression of a neutrophil nucleus to become a band cell
The eraliest bone marrow precursor cells of granulocytes, and in general neutrophils, hae a round oval nuclei. As they mature the nuclei flattens and develops an indention. This indentation becomes deeper until portions of the nucleus on each side become segmented.
Describe the size of bands.
They are about the same size as a mature neutrophil.
What is a problem in determining the number of neutrophils in the blood.
They are impossible to count by machine and you must count them by hand.
What type of cells are derived from monocytes?
What cells make up the mononuclear phagocyte system ?
Monocytes and macrophages.
Who shows up at the site of infalmmation first, macrophages or neutrophils?
What are the two main functions of macrophages?
They gobble up invading bacteria and fungi, macrophages (activated by pathogens) also secrete cytokines that activate other cells of inflammation.
What do M1 macrophages do ?
They gobble up cellular debris and secrete cytokines to activate other immune responses.
What does an M2 macrophage do ?
M2 macrophages secrete transforming growth factor beta and other growth factors that stimulate tissue repair and fibrosis.
Are M1 macrophages pro-inflammitory or anti-inflammatory ?
M1 macrophages are PRO-Inflammatory
Are M2 macrophages Pro-inflammatory or Anti-inflammatory ?
M2 macrophages are Anti-Inflammatory
In repair from necrosis what is a crude analogy of the function of a macrophage?
They are the garbage collectors
What are lymphocytes?
The fundamental cellular players in the adaptive immune system.
What are the two types of lymphocytes, (broad category and include general function)
B Lymphocytes- humeral immunity
T-Lymphocytes- Cell mediated immunity
What is the distribution of B cells to T cells in the blood?
60-70% are T cells and 10-20 % are B cells
What are CD8+ cells
What are CD4+ cells
What is lymphocytic inflammation due to ?
Infection or autoimmune disease
What type of cells are normally found in CSF?
The CSF in a classic case contains exclusively mononuclear cells. Predominately lymphocytes and no neutrophils.
What does it mean when there are neutrophils in the CSF?
That there could potentially be the early aseptic meningitis.
What will a CSF sample from a patient with bacterial meningitis show?
Greatly increased level of neutrophils.
Where do plasma cells come from and what do they do?
Plasma cells come from activated B cells and they secrete antibodies.
What does the plasma cell nucleus look like?
A clock face.
Are plasma cells found in a patient who is healthy?
Plasma cells are not normally present in peripheral blood.
What is an eosinophil?
Eosinophis are granuloctic leikocytes characteristically found in the inflammation around parasitic infestations and in allergic reactions. Especially asthma.
What type of immunoglobin regulates eosinophils?
If you see a patient with peripheral blood eosinophilia what should you do?
Immediately search for an allergen or a parasite.
What do mast cells do.
Mast cells are granulocytes that participate in acute and chronic inflammation.
What are their counterparts?
What types of cytoplasmic granules are present in mast cells?
Chemotactic factors that activate
-platelet activating factor
What type of surface receptors do mast cells and basophils have?
IgE, and when stimulated they degranulate and release all the above mentioned chemicals.
What does histamine do?
Causes vasodilatation and endothelial cell contraction mediating the vascular changes in inflammation.
If mast cells release histamine throughout the body what happens?
What is a granuloma ?
2 or more activated macrophages working together.
What is a multinucleated giant cell?
Syncytium of macrophages that are found at the site of chronic inflammation.
When do multi nucleated giant cells form?
When single macrophage finds itself unable to engulf and phagocytose a large particle.
What are the two most common types of multi-nucleated giant cells?
Foreign Body Type and Langhans Type
What is a Langhans type?
Associated with immune granulomas
What is a foreign body type?
It is when a single macrophage finds itself unable to engulf and phagocytose a large particle so it calls in its boys to help out.
When does an immune type granuloma form?
In the presence of a persistent antigen induced immune reaction
When do multinucleated giant cells form that are not macrophage syncytia occurs?
Multiple types of malignant tumors and in normal placenta.