Robbins chapter 1 Flashcards Preview

Pathology block 1 > Robbins chapter 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Robbins chapter 1 Deck (21)
1

T/F Failure to stain is due to enzyme loss after cell death

2

Describe pure hypertrophy

there are no new cells, just bigger cells containing increased amounts of structral proteins and organelles

3

What is an adaptive response in cells capable of replication?

hyperplasia

4

What occurs when cells have a limited capacity to divide?

hypertorphy

5

T/F hypertrophy and hyperplasia can occur together

true

6

T/F Hypertrophy can be physiologic or pathologic

7

What can be caused either by increased functional demand or by growth factor or hormonal stimulation?

hypertrophy

8

Massive physiologic enlargement of uterus during pregnancy occurs as a consequence of what?

  • estrogen-stimulated smooth muscle hypertrophy
  • smooth muscle hyperplasia

9

In response to increased demand, the striated muscle cells in both skeletal muscle and heart can undergo what?

only hypertrophy bc adult muscle cells have a limited capacity to divide

10

What type of disease is the cardiac enlargement that occurs with hypertension or aortic valve disease?

pathologic cellular hypertrophy

11

The mechanisms driving cardiac hypertrophy involve at least 2 types of signals. What are they? Describe the result of these signals

  • mechanical triggers
  • trophic triggers

Result:

  • synthesis of more proteins and myofilaments/cell => increases force generated with each contraction to meet work demands
  • switch of contractile proteins from adult to fetal/neonate forms

 

12

T/F hyperplasia can be physiologic or pathologic

13

What is the result of hyperplasia?

cellular proliferation is stimulated by growth factors that are produced by a variety of cell types

14

What are the 2 types of phyiologic hyperplasia?

  • hormonal hyperplasia
  • compensatory hyperplasia

15

Most forms of pathologic hyperplasia are caused by what?

excessive hormonal or growth factor stimulation

16

What is the common cause of abnormal menstral bleeding?

disturbed balance between estrogen and progesterone causing endometrial hyperplasia

17

What is an important response of connective tissue cell in wound healing? How?

hyperplasia

proliferating fibroblasts and blood vessels aid in repair

18

What is the mechanism of atrophy?

The mechanism of atrophy consist of a combination of decreased protein synthesis and increased protein degradation in cells 

19

What is autophagy?

Autophagy is the process in which the starved cell eats its own components in an attempt to survive. 

20

What is metaplasia?

The change in phenotype of differentiated cells, often in response to chronic irritation, makes cells better able to withstand the stress. Usually produced by an alteration of the differentiation pathway of tissue stem cells. May result in reduced functions or increased propensity for malignant transformation. 

21