T/F Failure to stain is due to enzyme loss after cell death
Describe pure hypertrophy
there are no new cells, just bigger cells containing increased amounts of structral proteins and organelles
What is an adaptive response in cells capable of replication?
What occurs when cells have a limited capacity to divide?
T/F hypertrophy and hyperplasia can occur together
T/F Hypertrophy can be physiologic or pathologic
What can be caused either by increased functional demand or by growth factor or hormonal stimulation?
Massive physiologic enlargement of uterus during pregnancy occurs as a consequence of what?
estrogen-stimulated smooth muscle hypertrophy
smooth muscle hyperplasia
In response to increased demand, the striated muscle cells in both skeletal muscle and heart can undergo what?
only hypertrophy bc adult muscle cells have a limited capacity to divide
What type of disease is the cardiac enlargement that occurs with hypertension or aortic valve disease?
pathologic cellular hypertrophy
The mechanisms driving cardiac hypertrophy involve at least 2 types of signals. What are they? Describe the result of these signals
- synthesis of more proteins and myofilaments/cell => increases force generated with each contraction to meet work demands
- switch of contractile proteins from adult to fetal/neonate forms
T/F hyperplasia can be physiologic or pathologic
What is the result of hyperplasia?
cellular proliferation is stimulated by growth factors that are produced by a variety of cell types
What are the 2 types of phyiologic hyperplasia?
Most forms of pathologic hyperplasia are caused by what?
excessive hormonal or growth factor stimulation
What is the common cause of abnormal menstral bleeding?
disturbed balance between estrogen and progesterone causing endometrial hyperplasia
What is an important response of connective tissue cell in wound healing? How?
proliferating fibroblasts and blood vessels aid in repair
What is the mechanism of atrophy?
The mechanism of atrophy consist of a combination of decreased protein synthesis and increased protein degradation in cells
What is autophagy?
Autophagy is the process in which the starved cell eats its own components in an attempt to survive.
What is metaplasia?
The change in phenotype of differentiated cells, often in response to chronic irritation, makes cells better able to withstand the stress. Usually produced by an alteration of the differentiation pathway of tissue stem cells. May result in reduced functions or increased propensity for malignant transformation.