Cellular Adaptation and Cell Necrosis Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Cellular Adaptation and Cell Necrosis Deck (19):

Cellular Adaptation

- prolonged exposure of cells to adverse/exaggerated normal stimuli which evokes various changes at level of individual cells, tissues, or whole organs
- once removed... most cells return to normal, some do not


What is Atrophy? What are some examples?

- decrease in the size of a tissue, organ, or the entire body
- physiologic: thymus, bones, & ovaries/uterus/breasts after menopause
- pathologic: Alzheimer dementia (BEST), kidneys w/atherosclerosis, testicular atrophy


What is Hypertrophy? What is the best example?

- increase in size of tissues or organs due to enlargement of individual cells
- Physiologic: skeletal muscle of body builders due to weights
- Pathologic: LVH (hypertrophy of heart due to HTN)


What is Hyperplasia? What is the best example?

- increase in number of cells that can cause enlargement of tissues or organs
- i.e. BPH, pregnant uterus, polyps of colon/stomach


Can hyperplasia and hypertrophy be seen together?

Yes, i.e. hyperplastic prostate (BPH) or uterine smooth muscle cells during pregnancy


What is Metaplasia? What is the best example?

- change in type of cell
- always pathologic
- i.e. squamous metaplasia of bronchial epithelial cells in long term smokers
- i.e. gastric or glandular metaplasia in Barrett's Esophagus from GERD


What is Dysplasia? What is the best example?

- "dis"ordered tissue growth of tissues resulting from chronic irritation/infection
- pre-cancerous
- cervical epithelia neoplasia or CIN on PAP smear --> cervical cancer


What is Anaplasia? List other names both pathologically and clinically?

- undifferentiation and uncontrolled growth of cells
- aka malignancy, carcinoma, cancer, neoplasm


List the 5 microscopic hallmarks of anaplasia

1. Pleomorphism (cells and nuclei vary in size and shape)
2. Nuclei irregular and hyperchromatic
3. extremely high N/C ratio (1:1)
4. large nucleoli present w/in nucleus
5. large #'s of mitotic figures


What is Cell Necrosis?

death of cells or groups of cells w/in living organism


What is the difference between necrosis and autolysis?

- necrosis is seen in the living (w/inflammation)
- autolysis seen in tissues after death


What are the different types of necrosis?

1. coagulative
2. liquefactive
3. caseous
4. fat


What is the most common type of necrosis? Give examples.

- coagulative necrosis: cell proteins are altered or denatured; often caused by anoxia
- typically occurs in solid internal organs (heart, kidney, spleen, liver)
- i.e. heart tissue undergoing MI


What is Liquefactive necrosis? What is the best example?

- dead cells liquefy; soft and gel-like
- brain infarcts (CVA)
- also seen in lung abscess (staph aureus)


What is Caseous Necrosis? What is the best example?

- a form of coagulative necrosis where thick, yellow, cheesy substance forms
- i.e. TB, characterized by lung granulomas called Ghon Complex
- Also some fungal infections (histoplasmosis)


What is fat necrosis? What is the best example?

- specialized form of liquefaction necrosis caused by action of lipolytic enzymes
- i.e. Pancreas - enzymes are released into fat tissue after rupture of pancreas, causing breakdown into free fatty acids to then bind with calcium forming soaps. Looks like white, calcified specs.


What is the difference between wet & dry gangrene?

- necrotic tissue infected by bacteria usually caused by atherosclerosis or DM
- Wet: inflammation, liquefaction (i.e wet decubitus ulcers)
- Dry: dried out necrotic tissue turns black and mummified (dry gangrene)


What are dystrophic calcifications? What is the best example?

- necrotic tissue attracts Ca2+ extracellular deposits; can be gritty to rock hard
- calcifications in Atherosclerotic coronary arteries contributes to narrowing of vessels
- Also seen in stenosis, breast cancers, congenital Toxoplasmosis


What are Metastatic Calcifications? What is the best example?

- deranged Ca2+ metabolism --> increased serum levels --> deposition of Ca2+ in other places (gallbladder, kidney, bladdr)
- also seen in Vitamin D toxicity, hyperparathyroidism, chronic renal failure