Cellular Basis of Disease Flashcards Preview

GO Pathology Chpt 1 > Cellular Basis of Disease > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cellular Basis of Disease Deck (31):
1

what is disease?

variation from normal state, may be caused by developmental disturbances; genetic or metabolic factors; microorganisms; physical, chemical, or radiant energy; or other unknown causes

2

define the term signs

signs of disease are those that we observe when we examine a patient

3

define the term symptoms

symptoms of disease are those things that a patient tells us when we question them about their problem

4

what is the ultimate diagnosis of disease?

ultimately, disease processes are diagnosed by returning to the cells and examining them under a microscope and in a medical laboratory

5

in terms of cellular function, what do we mean by normal?

normal cells have the ability to reproduce correctly, stop reproducing when necessary, remain in a specific location, become specialized for specific functions, and self destruct when necessary

6

what are the three major cellular responses to stress?

adaptation, injury (reversible or irreversible), cell death

7

define the term hypertrophy

increase in size of an organ or tissue do to increase in the size of individual cells

8

define the term hyperplasia

increase in the # of cells that make up a tissue or organ

9

define the term hypoplasia

is defined as the failure of an organ or tissue to develop completely

10

define the term atrophhy

is defined as the decrease in cell size and, therefore, a decrease in the size of a tissue or organ

11

define the term aplasia

is defined as the total failure of a tissue or organ to develop

12

define the term cloudy swelling

a degenerative change in cells, in which the cells swell due to injury to the membranes affecting the ionic transfer, causing the cytoplasm to appear cloudy and water to accumulate b/w cells, with resultant swelling of tissues

13

vacuolar degeneration

formation of nonlipid vacuoles in cytoplasm, most frequently due to accumulation of water by cloudy swelling

14

fatty change

defect in fat metabolism in the cells resulting in an increased amount of fat in the cells

15

fatty change is associated with what organs?

liver, heart, and kidneys

16

what is necrosis?

necrosis involves the physical destruction of cells that are already dead

17

what degenerative processes are associated with necrosis?

there are two chemical processes--autolysis and denaturation of the protein component of the cell

18

how does cell vitality affect necrosis?

the path that this cellular breakdown takes determines the clinical picture that is presented as pathology in a patient

19

define the term liguefactive

liquefactive necrosis results when released enzymes digest necrotic tissues

20

define the term coagulative necrosis

results from lack of oxygen to the cell (hypoxia)

21

what is free radical injury?

free radicals are molecules responsible for aging, tissue damage, and a number of diseases. the molecules are unstable because they are incomplete, lacking an even number of electrons. free radicals seek to bond with other molecules, capturing electrons to become complete of stable. Free radicals inflict damage when they react with cell membranes or cellular DNA

22

what is autophagy?

autophagy is a normal physiological process in the body that deals with destruction of cells in the body. It maintains homeostasis or normal functioning by protein degradation and turnover of the destroyed cell organelles for new cell formation

23

what are the two basic types of pigments?

endogenous and exogenous

24

define the term endogenous

produces within the body

25

define the term exogenous

originate in the environment outside the body

26

do pigments always indicate disease?

no, the accumulation of pigment in the cells can be a normal physiologic process in some cases

27

what are the two types of calcium accumulations?

dystrophic calcification and metastatic calcification

28

what is the blood calcium level like in dystrophic calcification?

blood calcium level is completely normal

29

what is the blood calcium level like in metastatic calcification?

the blood calcium levels are not regulated properly by the body and they are much too high

30

give examples of calcium accumulations of dystrophic calcification

tuberculosis

31

give an example of calcium accumulation of metastatic calcification

hyperparathyroidism