Flashcards in Cellular Basis of Disease Deck (31):
what is disease?
variation from normal state, may be caused by developmental disturbances; genetic or metabolic factors; microorganisms; physical, chemical, or radiant energy; or other unknown causes
define the term signs
signs of disease are those that we observe when we examine a patient
define the term symptoms
symptoms of disease are those things that a patient tells us when we question them about their problem
what is the ultimate diagnosis of disease?
ultimately, disease processes are diagnosed by returning to the cells and examining them under a microscope and in a medical laboratory
in terms of cellular function, what do we mean by normal?
normal cells have the ability to reproduce correctly, stop reproducing when necessary, remain in a specific location, become specialized for specific functions, and self destruct when necessary
what are the three major cellular responses to stress?
adaptation, injury (reversible or irreversible), cell death
define the term hypertrophy
increase in size of an organ or tissue do to increase in the size of individual cells
define the term hyperplasia
increase in the # of cells that make up a tissue or organ
define the term hypoplasia
is defined as the failure of an organ or tissue to develop completely
define the term atrophhy
is defined as the decrease in cell size and, therefore, a decrease in the size of a tissue or organ
define the term aplasia
is defined as the total failure of a tissue or organ to develop
define the term cloudy swelling
a degenerative change in cells, in which the cells swell due to injury to the membranes affecting the ionic transfer, causing the cytoplasm to appear cloudy and water to accumulate b/w cells, with resultant swelling of tissues
formation of nonlipid vacuoles in cytoplasm, most frequently due to accumulation of water by cloudy swelling
defect in fat metabolism in the cells resulting in an increased amount of fat in the cells
fatty change is associated with what organs?
liver, heart, and kidneys
what is necrosis?
necrosis involves the physical destruction of cells that are already dead
what degenerative processes are associated with necrosis?
there are two chemical processes--autolysis and denaturation of the protein component of the cell
how does cell vitality affect necrosis?
the path that this cellular breakdown takes determines the clinical picture that is presented as pathology in a patient
define the term liguefactive
liquefactive necrosis results when released enzymes digest necrotic tissues
define the term coagulative necrosis
results from lack of oxygen to the cell (hypoxia)
what is free radical injury?
free radicals are molecules responsible for aging, tissue damage, and a number of diseases. the molecules are unstable because they are incomplete, lacking an even number of electrons. free radicals seek to bond with other molecules, capturing electrons to become complete of stable. Free radicals inflict damage when they react with cell membranes or cellular DNA
what is autophagy?
autophagy is a normal physiological process in the body that deals with destruction of cells in the body. It maintains homeostasis or normal functioning by protein degradation and turnover of the destroyed cell organelles for new cell formation
what are the two basic types of pigments?
endogenous and exogenous
define the term endogenous
produces within the body
define the term exogenous
originate in the environment outside the body
do pigments always indicate disease?
no, the accumulation of pigment in the cells can be a normal physiologic process in some cases
what are the two types of calcium accumulations?
dystrophic calcification and metastatic calcification
what is the blood calcium level like in dystrophic calcification?
blood calcium level is completely normal
what is the blood calcium level like in metastatic calcification?
the blood calcium levels are not regulated properly by the body and they are much too high
give examples of calcium accumulations of dystrophic calcification