Cerebral Cortex I Flashcards Preview

MHD2 Neuro > Cerebral Cortex I > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cerebral Cortex I Deck (31):
1

Sylvian fissure

Separates the temporal lobe from the frontal and parietal lobes.

2

Central sulcus

Everything in front of this is frontal lobe, behind it is parietal lobe. Found between 2 vertical gyri

3

Gyri associated with the central sulcus

Precentral (motor) gyrus

Postcentral (sensory) gyrus

4

3 major horizontal Gyri in frontal lobe? In temporal lobe?

Both are Superior, middle, and inferior

5

2 divisions of the parietal lobe

Superior lobule
Inferior lobule

Separated by interparietal sulcus.

6

Gyrus next to corpus collusum

Cinguate gyrus. Goes on to become the Hippocampul gyrus.

7

Gyrus which splits occipital lobe

Calcarine fissure

8

General role of cerebral cortex

Analyzes, plans and initiates response.

9

Reticular system for cerebral cortex.

"Wakes brain up" Turns it on to adjust its level of responsiveness.

10

Types of cortex

(1) Neocortex (most of cortex)
(2) Archicortex
(3) Paleocortex

11

Most of the neurons of the brain are where?

Cerebellum

12

Pyramidal cells of Neocortex

Projection cells out of cerebral cortex. 80% of the neocortex cells.

Give rise to the axons which leave the cortex, and go to other parts of the brain.

13

Alost all of the output of the cortex is (excitatory or inhibitory?)

Excitatory

14

Non-pyramidal cells of neocortex

Axons don't project out. They still in the cerebral cortex and influence pyramidal cells

15

Granular areas vs Agranular areas

Granular- small neurons
Agranular- large pyramidal cells

16

The pyramidal cells usually sit in cell layer

V

17

Most of the input that enters brain, enters via layers...

2, 3, and 4

18

Columns which are adjacent to each other...

Have similar function at a cellular level

19

Association bundles or fasiculi

Connect parts of the back of the cerebrum to parts in the front. These tracts are similar to a highway.

Fibers travel in both directions and none are discrete point-to-point.

20

Primary neocortical areas

(1)Primary (P) motor-- precentral gyrus (4)
(2) P. Somatosenory-- postcentral gyrus (3, 1, 2)
(3) P. Visual-- calcarine (17)
(4) P. Auditory-- transverse temporal gyrus (41)

21

Unimodal association areas

Similar to primary neocortical areas. Analyze information and extract more from it.

Adjacent to primary cortical areas.

Higher level of analysis.

22

Multimodel association areas

High level intellectual functions.

Sends converging inputs and may respond to multiple stimuli.

23

Parieto-occipital-temporal region

Multimodal association area of cortex in which information related to sight, sounds and feeling are integrated.

There is no topographic distribution affiliated. One point could be for finger and a point right next to it could be for the opposite knee.

24

Neglect

Caused by injury to right inferior parietal lobule. Contralateral.

Ex. Vision is intact, but their minds neglect certain parts of the field

25

Apraxia can be caused by...

Injury to the left parietal area

26

Prefrontal area of the Multimodal association area

Executive Functions: Planning, insight, foresight and basic aspects of personality.

Memory, and Decision Making.

27

Dorsolateral component of Prefrontal area

Important for working memory, attention and logical aspects of problem solving

28

Ventromedial component of Prefrontal area

Has extensive limbic connections and are more important for emotional aspects of planning and decisions.

29

All cortical areas receive Corpus Callosum commissural fibers EXCEPT (just name the major exception)...

Temporal lobe connections which travel through the ANTERIOR COMMISSURE

30

Disconnection syndromes

Often result from white matter damage that interferes with cerebral connections.

Major Example: Alexia without Agraphia. Person cannot read, but they can write.

31

Language is centered in which hemisphere of the brain?

Left

Brokese-- Motor (production of words)

Werneke's-- Sensory (what you hear and see, getting transmitted into what you say)