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632: Neuroanatomy-Neuroscience > Cerebrum > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cerebrum Deck (99):
1

What does the cerebrum consist of?

the diencephalon and the cerebral hemispheres

2

What is the cerebrum involved in?

- perception
- voluntary movements
- using language and nonverbal communication
- understanding spatial relationship
- using visual information
- making decisions
- consciousness
- emotions
- mind-body interactions
- memory

3

What is the laymen's definition of cognition?

the process of knowing

4

What is the neurobiological definition of cognition?

the neural processes by which the brain integrates meaningful stimuli, memory, and internal motivations producing perceptional awareness and appropriate behavior

5

What are the 4 structures of the diencephalon?

- Thalamus
- Hypothalamus
- Epithalamus
- Subthalamus

*all structures with the term thalamus in their names

6

Where does the hypothalamus sit in reference to the thalamus?

inferior and anterior to it

7

Where does the epithalamus sit in reference to the thalamus?

superior and posterior to it

8

Where does the subthalamus sit in reference to the thalamus?

inferolateral to it

9

What is the thalamus?

A large egg-shaped collection of nuclei above the brainstem bilaterally

10

What are the 3 major anatomical groups of nuclei in the thalamus?

anterior
medial
lateral

11

The lateral group of nuclei is further divided into ____ and _____ tiers

dorsal and ventral

12

What are the 3 main functional groups of thalamic nuclei?

- Relay
- Association
- Nonspecific

13

What do relay nuclei do?

convey information from the sensory systems (except olfactory), the basal ganglia, or the cerebellum to the cerebral cortex

14

Where are all relay nuclei found?

in the ventral tier of the lateral group

15

What do association nuclei do?

process emotional and some memory information or integrate different types of sensation

16

What do nonspecific nuclei do?

regulate consciousness, arousal, and attention

17

What does the hypothalamus do?

it integrates behaviors with visceral functions

18

What are 5 functions that are orchestrated by the hypothalamus?

- Maintaining homeostasis
- Eating, reproductive, and defensive behaviors
- Emotional expression of pleasure, rage, fear, and aversion
- Regulation of circadian rhythms in concert with other brain regions
- Endocrine regulation of growth, metabolism, and reproductive organs

19

What is the major gland in the epithalamus?

the pineal gland

20

What is the pineal gland involved in?

regulating the circadian rhythms and influencing the secretions of the pituitary gland, adrenal and parathyroid glands, and the islets of Langerhans

21

The subthalamus is located ______ to the substantia nigra of the midbrain

superior

22

What is the subthalamus part of?

The basal ganglia

23

What is the subthalamus involved in?

regulating movement

24

What does the subthalamus facilitate?

basal ganglia output nuclei

25

What does the cerebral hemisphere consist of?

- subcortical structures
- cerebral cortex

26

What do the subcortical structures consist of?

subcortical white matters
- basal ganglia
- amygdala

27

What are the 3 categories of subcortical white matter?

- Projection fibers
- Commissural fibers
- Association fibers

28

Where do the projection fibers extend to and from?

Extend from subcortical structures to the cerebral cortex and from the cerebral cortex to the spinal cord, brainstem, brainstem and thalamus.

29

What are 3 examples of projection fibers?

- thalamocortical
- corticospinal
- corticobrainstem

30

What do commissural fibers do?

Connect homologous areas of the cerebral hemispheres

31

What is the largest group of commissural fibers?

Corpus callosum

32

What do association fibers do?

Connect cortical regions within one hemisphere

33

What do short association fibers connect?

adjacent gyri

34

What do long association fibers connect?

lobes within one hemisphere

35

What do the basal ganglia do?

They sequence movements, regulate muscle tone and muscle force, select and inhibit specific motor synergies, and are involved with cognitive functions

36

The cerebral cortex is a vast collection of what?

cell bodies, axons and dendrites covering the surface of the cerebral hemispheres

37

What are the 3 most common types of cortical neurons?

- Pyramidal
- Fusiform
- Stellate cells

38

What are the 6 layers of the cerebral cortex?

- molecular layer
- external granular layer
- external pyramidal layer
- internal granular layer
- internal pyramidal layer
- multiform layer

39

There are how many distinctive histological areas (cytoarchitectonic) in the cortex?

52

40

What are the 5 categories of the cerebral cortex that are identified based on functions?

- Primary sensory cortex
- Secondary sensory cortex
- Primary motor cortex
- Motor planning areas
- Association cortex

41

What does the primary sensory cortex do?

Discriminates among different intensities and qualities of sensory information

42

What does the secondary sensory cortex do?

Performs more complex analysis of sensation.

43

What does the primary motor cortex do?

Provides descending control of motor output.

44

What do motor planning areas do?

Organize movements

45

What does the association cortex do?

Controls behavior, interprets sensation, and processes emotions and memories

46

What are the 4 primary sensory areas of the cerebral cortex?

- primary somatosensory
- primary auditory
- primary visual
- primary vestibular

47

What does the primary somatosensory cortex do?

Discriminates shape, texture, or size of objects

48

The primary somatosensory cortex receives information from tactile and proprioceptive receptors via a three-neuron pathway. What are these 3 neurons?

- Peripheral afferent/dorsal column neuron
- Medial lemniscus neuron
- Thalamocortical neuron

49

What does the primary auditory cortex do?

Conscious discrimination of loudness and pitch of sounds

50

What does the primary vestibular cortex do?

discriminates among head positions and head movements

51

What does the primary visual cortex do?

Distinguishes intensity of light, shape, size, and location of objects

52

Describe the pathway via which visual information travels to the cortex

from the retina to the lateral geniculate body of the thalamus, then to the primary visual cortex

53

What are the 3 secondary sensory areas of the cerebral cortex?

- secondary somatosensory
- secondary visual
- secondary auditory

54

What is the function of the secondary somatosensory area?

sterognosis and memory of the tactile and spatial environment

55

What is the function of the secondary visual area?

analysis of motion and color and control of visual fixation

56

What is the function of the secondary auditory area?

Classification of sounds

57

The primary motor cortex is the source of most neurons in the _______ tract

corticospinal

58

What does the primary motor cortex control?

contralateral voluntary movements, particularly the fine movements of the hand and face

59

Is a greater proportion of the total area of the primary motor cortex devoted to neurons that control the hands and face or the trunk and proximal limbs?

hands and face

60

The motor planning areas are part of the cortex _____ to the primary motor cortex

anterior

61

What are the 3 motor planning areas?

- Supplementary motor area
- Premotor area
- Broca’s area

62

What is the supplementary motor area important for?

the initiation of movement, orientation of the eyes and head, and planning bimanual and sequential movements

63

What does the premotor area control?

trunk and girdle muscles via the medial upper motor neurons

64

What is Broca's area responsible for?

planning movements of the mouth during speech and the grammatical aspects of language

65

Broca's area is usually found in the ___ hemisphere

left

66

The cortex not directly involved with sensation or movement is called the ______ cortex

association

67

__% of the cerebral mantle is comprised of primary sensory and motor cortex
__% is termed associational cortex

25

75

68

What are 3 association areas of the cerebral cortex?

- dorsolateral prefrontal association
- parietotemporal association
- ventral and medial dorsal prefrontal association

69

What are the functions of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex?

self-awareness and executive functions

70

What are the functions of the pareitotemporal prefrontal cortex?

- cognitive intelligence
- sensory integration
- problem solving
- understanding language and special relationships

71

What are the functions of the ventral and medial dorsal prefrontal association cortex?

- impulse control
- reactions to surroundings
- emotion
- motivation
- personality

72

_______ prefrontal association area connects with areas that regulate mood and affect.

Ventral

73

_____ dorsal prefrontal cortex perceives other’s emotions and makes assumptions about what other people believe and their intentions.

Medial

74

What is emotion?

a short-term subjective experience

75

What is mood?

a sustained, subjective, ongoing emotional experience

76

What are the 4 structures that recognize emotional stimuli and generate and perceive emotions?

- Amygdala
- Area 25 + Mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus
- Ventral striatum
- Anterior insula

77

What does the amygdala do?

Detects emotional & social cues
Generates feelings of fear and disgust

78

What does area 25 + mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus do?

generate sad mood and depression

79

What does the ventral striatum do?

reward oriented behavior and responses to conditioned stimuli

80

What does the anterior insula do?

awareness of emotions and of stimuli inside the body

81

Making decisions depends on what 3 things?

- Stimulus coding system
- Action selection system
- Expected reward system

82

When making a decision where the outcome is uncertain, the ____ loop is active

limbic

83

What are the 3 systems that create the stress response?

- Somatic nervous system
- Autonomic nervous system
- Neuroendocrine system

84

What are the 3 types of memory?

- Working
- Declarative
- Procedural

85

What does working memory involve?

temporary storage and manipulation of information

86

Which 2 cortices maintain, manipulate, and update information in working memory?

Prefrontal cortex and the parietotemporal association cortex

87

What does declarative memory involve?

facts, events, concepts, and locations

88

What are the 3 stages of declarative memory?

- Encoding
- Consolidation
- Retrieval

89

What does procedural memory involve?

knowledge of how to do actions and skills

90

What is required to store procedural memories?

practice

91

What are the 3 stages of procedural memory for motor learning?

- Cognitive
- Associative
- Automatic

92

Where does comprehension of the spoken language occur?

Wernicke’s area

93

Broca's area is found ______ to Wernicke's area.

anterior

94

What is perception?

The interpretation of sensation into meaningful forms

95

Perception is an active process, requiring interaction among what 3 things?

the brain, the body, and the environment

96

Wernicke's area also comprehends what?

Spatial Perception

97

After visual information is processed by the secondary visual cortex what are the 2 directions in which it flows?

- Dorsally
- Ventrally

98

The dorsally directed visual stream is an ____ stream to which lobe?

action

frontal

99

The ventrally directed visual stream is a ____ stream to which lobe?

perceptual

temporal