Flashcards in Introduction to Neuroscience Deck (106):
What are the 5 analyses of the nervous system?
- Cellular neuroscience
- Molecular neuroscience
- Systems neuroscience
- Behavioral neuroscience
- Cognitive neuroscience
Describe cellular neuroscience
This type of analysis considers distinctions between different types of cells in the nervous system and how each cell type functions.
Give a few examples of cellular neuroscience
How an individual neuron processes and conveys information.
How information is transferred among neurons.
The roles of non-neural cells in the nervous system
Describe molecular neuroscience
this type of analysis investigates the chemistry and physics involved in neural function
Describe systems neuroscience
This analysis investigates groups of neurons that perform a common function such as connections of the nervous system
What are the 2 examples of systems neuroscience?
- Proprioceptive system which conveys position and movement information from the musculoskeletal system to the central nervous system.
- Motor system which controls movement
Describe behavioral neuroscience
This analysis examines the interaction among systems that influence behavior
Describe cognitive neuroscience
This analysis covers the fields of thinking, learning, and memory
What are some examples of cognitive-level analysis?
Studies focused on planning, using language, and identifying the differences between memory for remembering specific events and memory for performing motor skills
What are the 2 types of cells of the nervous system?
neurons and glia
What is the functional unit of the nervous system?
Neurons that convey information into the central nervous system are _____. In other words these types of neurons are _____.
Neurons that transmit information from the central nervous system are _____. In other words these types of neurons are _____.
What are glia?
non-neural cells that provide services for neurons
What are the 4 regions of the nervous system?
3) Brainstem and Cerebellar
What is a gyrus?
A ridge or fold between two clefts on the cerebral surface in the brain
What is a sulcus?
A groove or furrow on the cerebral surface of the brain
If sulci are deep what are they called?
What is the most important sulcus in the cerebral cortex?
What are the names of the gyri anterior and posterior to the central sulcus?
The precentral gyrus is anterior to the central sulcus and the postcentral gyrus is posterior to the central sulcus
The precentral gyrus is the primary ____ area of the cerebral cortex.
The postcentral gyrus is the primary ____ area of the cerebral cortex.
List the 3 gyri and 2 sulci of the frontal lobe
The superior, middle and inferior frontal gyri
Superior and inferior frontal sulcus
List the 3 gyri and 2 sulci of the temporal lobe
The superior, middle and inferior temporal gyri
Superior and inferior temporal sulcus
The lateral fissure is aka what?
List the 2 lobules and 1 sulcus of the parietal lobe
The superior and inferior parietal lobule
Areas of the brain that appear gray contain what?
neuron cell bodies
What occurs in gray matter?
In the CNS groups of cell bodies (gray matter) are called _____, although gray matter on the surface of the brain is called _____.
Groups of the cell bodies in the PNS are called what?
What is white matter composed of?
Axons which are wrapped in myelin.
Myelin has a high fat content which gives it its white appearance
What occurs in white matter?
The axons convey information among parts of the nervous system
A bundle of myelinated axons that travel together in the CNS are called what? (4 variations)
A tract, lemniscus, column or peduncle.
Peripheral components of the somatic nervous system contain what 3 things?
- sensory nerve endings
- glial cells
Peripheral components of the autonomic nervous system contain what 3 things?
- entire neurons
- sensory endings
What are the 3 areas of a gray matter in a cross-sectioned spinal cord?
dorsal, lateral, and ventral horns
What are the 3 areas of a white matter in a cross-sectioned spinal cord?
dorsal, lateral, and anterior columns
Distally the spinal cord ends in the what?
The spinal cord has __ segments, and a pair of spinal nerves arises from each segment. This means there are a total of __ spinal nerves.
Sensory information enters the spinal cord through the ___ root and motor information exits the spinal cord through the ___ root.
What are the 2 main functions of the spinal cord?
- To convey information between the neurons innervating peripheral structures and the brain
- To process information within the cord (movement of hand away from painful stimulus)
What are the 3 parts of the brainstem?
What part of the brainstem is the most inferior section and is continuous with the spinal cord?
What are the 3 features located on the anterior surface of the medulla?
- the olive
- the pyramids
- the roots of 4 cranial nerves
The pyramids of the medulla are axons that project from the cerebral cortex to the spinal cord. As these fibers cross the midline they form what?
the pyramidal decussation
What is located on the posterior aspect of the medulla?
2 slender fibers:
- fasciculus cuneatus
- fasciculus gracillis
What structure is located on the anterior aspect of the pons?
a large bulge which contains fiber tracts and interspersed nuclei
How many CNs attach to the pons?
The posterior aspect of the pons borders what?
the 4th ventricle
The anterior portion of the midbrain is formed by what?
2 cerebral peduncles consisting of fibers that descend from the cerebral cortex
Dorsally the midbrain consists of what 4 things?
4 small rounded bodies:
- 2 superior colliculi
- 2 inferior colliculi
What are the importances of the colliculi?
For orientation to auditory and visual stimuli
How many CNs arise from the midbrain?
3 functions of the brainstem?
- control equilibrium
- integrate information
- control CV activity, respiration, and temperature
Function of CN I
Function of CN II
Function of CN III
Moves and constricts pupils and raises upper eyelids
Function of CN IV
Function of CN V
Facial and TMJ sensation and chewing
Function of CN VI
Abducts the pupil
Function of CN VII
Facial expression, closes eyes, produces tears and saliva, and taste
Function of CN VIII
Function of CN IX
Swallowing, salivation, and taste
Function of CN X
Regulates viscera, swallowing, speech, and taste
Function of CN XI
Elevates shoulders and turns head
Function of CN XII
Which CNs arise from the midbrain?
III and IV
Which CNs arise from the pons?
V - VIII
Which CNs arise from the medulla?
IX - XII
Which CNs arise above the brainstem?
I and II
Describe the anatomy of the cerebellum
It Consists of two large cerebellar hemispheres and a midline vermis
What connects the cerebellum to the posterior brainstem?
large bundles of fibers called peduncles.
What is the function of the cerebellum?
to coordinate movement
What is the center of the cerebrum called?
The diencephalon consists of what 4 structures?
4 functions of the thalamus
- relay information to the cerebral cortex
- process emotional and memory information
- integrate different types of sensations
- regulate consciousness, arousal and attention
Functions of the hypothalamus
Maintains body temperature, metabolic rate, and chemical composition of tissues and fluids
The epithalamus consists primarily of what gland?
the pineal gland
What does the pineal gland do?
Influences the secretion of other endocrine glands
What does the subthalamus do>
It is part of a neural circuit controls movement
Which part of the diencephalon is a target for implantation of deep brain stimulator for movement disorders?
What are the 6 lobes of each cerebral hemisphere?
The surface of the cerebral hemispheres is called what?
the cerebral cortex
What is the function of the cerebral cortex?
Process sensory, motor, and memory information
The cerebral cortex is also the site for what?
reasoning, language, nonverbal communication, intelligence, and personality
What does the limbic system include?
Parts of the hypothalamus, thalamus, and cerebral cortex, several deep cerebral nuclei, and the hippocampus
What is the limbic system involved with?
Emotions and the processing of some types of memory
Within the white matter of the cerebral hemispheres are additional areas of gray matter, the most prominent being what?
the basal ganglia
What are the 3 basal ganglia nuclei in the cerebral hemispheres?
- globus pallidus
The caudate and putamen together are called what?
the corpus striatum
The putamen and globus pallidus together are called what?
the lenticular nucleus
Two additional nuclei in the cerebral hemispheres, the ______ and the _______, are part of the basal ganglia neural circuit
How many ventricles are in the brain? Where are they located?
- the first and second ventricles are located in the cerebral hemispheres
- the third ventricle that is a midline slit in the diencephalon between the left and right thalamus
- the fourth ventricle located posterior to the pons and medulla and anterior to the cerebellum
The lateral ventricles are connected to the 3rd ventricle by what?
the interventricular foramina
The third and fourth ventricles are connected by what?
the cerebral (sylvian) aqueduct
Within the ventricles the CSF is secreted by what?
the choroid plexus
CSF exits the fourth ventricle through the ____ foramina and the ____ foramen where it continues to circulate around the CNS as the ____ canal.
What are the 3 meninges from internal to external?
What are the 2 dura projections that separate parts of the brain?
falx cerebri and tentorium cerebelli
What supplies the anterior two thirds of the spinal cord with blood?
the anterior spinal artery
What supplies the posterior third of the spinal cord with blood?
the posterior spinal artery
The spinal arteries receive blood via what arteries?
The vertebral and medullary arteries
What 2 pairs of arteries supply blood to the brain?
2 internal carotid arteries
2 vertebral arteries
The internal carotid arteries supply blood to what parts of the brain?
most of the cerebrum
The vertebral arteries supply blood to what parts of the brain?
the occipital and inferior temporal lobes and to the brainstem/cerebellar region
What is the circle of Willis?
an anastomotic ring of 9 arteries, which supply all of the blood to the cerebral hemispheres