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Flashcards in Introduction to Neuroscience Deck (106):
1

What are the 5 analyses of the nervous system?

- Cellular neuroscience
- Molecular neuroscience
- Systems neuroscience
- Behavioral neuroscience
- Cognitive neuroscience

2

Describe cellular neuroscience

This type of analysis considers distinctions between different types of cells in the nervous system and how each cell type functions.

3

Give a few examples of cellular neuroscience

How an individual neuron processes and conveys information.
How information is transferred among neurons.
The roles of non-neural cells in the nervous system

4

Describe molecular neuroscience

this type of analysis investigates the chemistry and physics involved in neural function

5

Describe systems neuroscience

This analysis investigates groups of neurons that perform a common function such as connections of the nervous system

6

What are the 2 examples of systems neuroscience?

- Proprioceptive system which conveys position and movement information from the musculoskeletal system to the central nervous system.
- Motor system which controls movement

7

Describe behavioral neuroscience

This analysis examines the interaction among systems that influence behavior

8

Describe cognitive neuroscience

This analysis covers the fields of thinking, learning, and memory

9

What are some examples of cognitive-level analysis?

Studies focused on planning, using language, and identifying the differences between memory for remembering specific events and memory for performing motor skills

10

What are the 2 types of cells of the nervous system?

neurons and glia

11

What is the functional unit of the nervous system?

a neuron

12

Neurons that convey information into the central nervous system are _____. In other words these types of neurons are _____.

afferent

sensory

13

Neurons that transmit information from the central nervous system are _____. In other words these types of neurons are _____.

efferent

motor

14

What are glia?

non-neural cells that provide services for neurons

15

What are the 4 regions of the nervous system?

1) Peripheral
2) Spinal
3) Brainstem and Cerebellar
4) Cerebral

16

What is a gyrus?

A ridge or fold between two clefts on the cerebral surface in the brain

17

What is a sulcus?

A groove or furrow on the cerebral surface of the brain

18

If sulci are deep what are they called?

fissures

19

What is the most important sulcus in the cerebral cortex?

central sulcus

20

What are the names of the gyri anterior and posterior to the central sulcus?

The precentral gyrus is anterior to the central sulcus and the postcentral gyrus is posterior to the central sulcus

21

The precentral gyrus is the primary ____ area of the cerebral cortex.
The postcentral gyrus is the primary ____ area of the cerebral cortex.

motor

sensory

22

List the 3 gyri and 2 sulci of the frontal lobe

The superior, middle and inferior frontal gyri

Superior and inferior frontal sulcus

23

List the 3 gyri and 2 sulci of the temporal lobe

The superior, middle and inferior temporal gyri

Superior and inferior temporal sulcus

24

The lateral fissure is aka what?

Sylvian fissure

25

List the 2 lobules and 1 sulcus of the parietal lobe

The superior and inferior parietal lobule

Intra-parietal sulcus

26

Areas of the brain that appear gray contain what?

neuron cell bodies

27

What occurs in gray matter?

information integration

28

In the CNS groups of cell bodies (gray matter) are called _____, although gray matter on the surface of the brain is called _____.

nuclei

cortex

29

Groups of the cell bodies in the PNS are called what?

ganglia

30

What is white matter composed of?

Axons which are wrapped in myelin.

Myelin has a high fat content which gives it its white appearance

31

What occurs in white matter?

The axons convey information among parts of the nervous system

32

A bundle of myelinated axons that travel together in the CNS are called what? (4 variations)

A tract, lemniscus, column or peduncle.

33

Peripheral components of the somatic nervous system contain what 3 things?

- axons
- sensory nerve endings
- glial cells

34

Peripheral components of the autonomic nervous system contain what 3 things?

- entire neurons
- sensory endings
- synapses
- ganglia
- glia

35

What are the 3 areas of a gray matter in a cross-sectioned spinal cord?

dorsal, lateral, and ventral horns

36

What are the 3 areas of a white matter in a cross-sectioned spinal cord?

dorsal, lateral, and anterior columns

37

Distally the spinal cord ends in the what?

conus medullaris

38

The spinal cord has __ segments, and a pair of spinal nerves arises from each segment. This means there are a total of __ spinal nerves.

31

62

39

Sensory information enters the spinal cord through the ___ root and motor information exits the spinal cord through the ___ root.

dorsal

ventral

40

What are the 2 main functions of the spinal cord?

- To convey information between the neurons innervating peripheral structures and the brain
- To process information within the cord (movement of hand away from painful stimulus)

41

What are the 3 parts of the brainstem?

- medulla
- pons
- midbrain

42

What part of the brainstem is the most inferior section and is continuous with the spinal cord?

medulla

43

What are the 3 features located on the anterior surface of the medulla?

- the olive
- the pyramids
- the roots of 4 cranial nerves

44

The pyramids of the medulla are axons that project from the cerebral cortex to the spinal cord. As these fibers cross the midline they form what?

the pyramidal decussation

45

What is located on the posterior aspect of the medulla?

2 slender fibers:
- fasciculus cuneatus
- fasciculus gracillis

46

What structure is located on the anterior aspect of the pons?

a large bulge which contains fiber tracts and interspersed nuclei

47

How many CNs attach to the pons?

4

48

The posterior aspect of the pons borders what?

the 4th ventricle

49

The anterior portion of the midbrain is formed by what?

2 cerebral peduncles consisting of fibers that descend from the cerebral cortex

50

Dorsally the midbrain consists of what 4 things?

4 small rounded bodies:
- 2 superior colliculi
- 2 inferior colliculi

51

What are the importances of the colliculi?

For orientation to auditory and visual stimuli

52

How many CNs arise from the midbrain?

2

53

3 functions of the brainstem?

- control equilibrium
- integrate information
- control CV activity, respiration, and temperature

54

Function of CN I

Smell

55

Function of CN II

Vision

56

Function of CN III

Moves and constricts pupils and raises upper eyelids

57

Function of CN IV

Move pupil

58

Function of CN V

Facial and TMJ sensation and chewing

59

Function of CN VI

Abducts the pupil

60

Function of CN VII

Facial expression, closes eyes, produces tears and saliva, and taste

61

Function of CN VIII

Equilibrium

62

Function of CN IX

Swallowing, salivation, and taste

63

Function of CN X

Regulates viscera, swallowing, speech, and taste

64

Function of CN XI

Elevates shoulders and turns head

65

Function of CN XII

Moves tongue

66

Which CNs arise from the midbrain?

III and IV

67

Which CNs arise from the pons?

V - VIII

68

Which CNs arise from the medulla?

IX - XII

69

Which CNs arise above the brainstem?

I and II

70

Describe the anatomy of the cerebellum

It Consists of two large cerebellar hemispheres and a midline vermis

71

What connects the cerebellum to the posterior brainstem?

large bundles of fibers called peduncles.

72

What is the function of the cerebellum?

to coordinate movement

73

What is the center of the cerebrum called?

the diencephalon

74

The diencephalon consists of what 4 structures?

- thalamus
- hypothalamus
- epithalamus
- subthalamus

75

4 functions of the thalamus

- relay information to the cerebral cortex
- process emotional and memory information
- integrate different types of sensations
- regulate consciousness, arousal and attention

76

Functions of the hypothalamus

Maintains body temperature, metabolic rate, and chemical composition of tissues and fluids

77

The epithalamus consists primarily of what gland?

the pineal gland

78

What does the pineal gland do?

Influences the secretion of other endocrine glands

79

What does the subthalamus do>

It is part of a neural circuit controls movement

80

Which part of the diencephalon is a target for implantation of deep brain stimulator for movement disorders?

the subthalamus

81

What are the 6 lobes of each cerebral hemisphere?

- Frontal
- Parietal
- Temporal
- Occipital
- Limbic
- Insular

82

The surface of the cerebral hemispheres is called what?

the cerebral cortex

83

What is the function of the cerebral cortex?

Process sensory, motor, and memory information

84

The cerebral cortex is also the site for what?

reasoning, language, nonverbal communication, intelligence, and personality

85

What does the limbic system include?

Parts of the hypothalamus, thalamus, and cerebral cortex, several deep cerebral nuclei, and the hippocampus

86

What is the limbic system involved with?

Emotions and the processing of some types of memory

87

Within the white matter of the cerebral hemispheres are additional areas of gray matter, the most prominent being what?

the basal ganglia

88

What are the 3 basal ganglia nuclei in the cerebral hemispheres?

- caudate
- putamen
- globus pallidus

89

The caudate and putamen together are called what?

the corpus striatum

90

The putamen and globus pallidus together are called what?

the lenticular nucleus

91

Two additional nuclei in the cerebral hemispheres, the ______ and the _______, are part of the basal ganglia neural circuit

subthalamic nucleus

substantia nigra

92

How many ventricles are in the brain? Where are they located?

4:
- the first and second ventricles are located in the cerebral hemispheres
- the third ventricle that is a midline slit in the diencephalon between the left and right thalamus
- the fourth ventricle located posterior to the pons and medulla and anterior to the cerebellum

93

The lateral ventricles are connected to the 3rd ventricle by what?

the interventricular foramina

94

The third and fourth ventricles are connected by what?

the cerebral (sylvian) aqueduct

95

Within the ventricles the CSF is secreted by what?

the choroid plexus

96

CSF exits the fourth ventricle through the ____ foramina and the ____ foramen where it continues to circulate around the CNS as the ____ canal.

lateral

medial

central

97

What are the 3 meninges from internal to external?

- Pia
- Arachnoid
- Dura

98

What are the 2 dura projections that separate parts of the brain?

falx cerebri and tentorium cerebelli

99

What supplies the anterior two thirds of the spinal cord with blood?

the anterior spinal artery

100

What supplies the posterior third of the spinal cord with blood?

the posterior spinal artery

101

The spinal arteries receive blood via what arteries?

The vertebral and medullary arteries

102

What 2 pairs of arteries supply blood to the brain?

2 internal carotid arteries
2 vertebral arteries

103

The internal carotid arteries supply blood to what parts of the brain?

most of the cerebrum

104

The vertebral arteries supply blood to what parts of the brain?

the occipital and inferior temporal lobes and to the brainstem/cerebellar region

105

What is the circle of Willis?

an anastomotic ring of 9 arteries, which supply all of the blood to the cerebral hemispheres

106

What are the 9 arteries that are part of the circle of Willis?

- right and left anterior cerebral arteries
- anterior communicating artery
- right and left internal carotid arteries
- right and left posterior cerebral arteries
- right and left posterior communicating arteries