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Flashcards in Cerebrum Clinical Application Deck (90):
1

What is mostly affected following thalamic lesion?

proprioception

2

Occlusion or hemorrhage of arteries supplying the ____ capsule of subcortical white matter are common

internal

3

What is performed in cases of intractable epilepsy?

callosotomy

4

What do lesions or dysfunctions of the caudate/ventral striatum cause?

behavioral disturbances

5

What is the most common behavioral abnormality secondary to caudate damage?

apathy

6

Excessive activity of the circuit connecting the caudate, anterior cingulate cortex, and ventral prefrontal cortex is correlated with what?

OCD

7

What is the result of lesions in the primary somatosensory area?

loss of tactile localization and conscious proprioception

8

What is the result of lesions in the primary auditory area?

loss of localization of sounds

9

What is the result of lesions in the primary visual area?

homonymous hemianopia

10

What is the result of lesions in the primary vestibular area?

change in awareness of head position and movement

11

What is Agnosia?

the inability to recognize objects when using a specific sense, even though discriminative ability with that sense is intact

12

What are 3 forms of agnosia?

- Astereognosis
- Visual agnosia
- Auditory agnosia

13

What is Astereognosis?

the inability to identify objects by touch and manipulation, despite intact discriminative somatosensation

14

What is Visual agnosia?

The inability to visually recognize objects, despite having intact vision

15

What does a person who is unable to identify faces visually, despite being able to interpret emotional facial expressions and being able to recognize visually other items in the environment have?

Prosopagnosia

16

Destruction of the ____ auditory cortex causes auditory agnoisa

secondary

17

What results if there is a lesion to the left secondary auditory cortex?

the person is unable to understand speech

18

What results if there is a lesion to the right secondary auditory cortex?

The person is unable to interpret environmental sounds

19

What is apraxia?

motor agnosia
- the knowledge of how to perform skilled movement is lost

20

What does constructional apraxia impair?

the ability to draw and to arrange objects correctly in space

21

What is motor perseveration?

the uncontrollable repetition of a movement

22

What is Broca's aphasia?

difficulty expressing oneself using language or symbols

23

What is dysarthria?

difficult or unclear articulation of speech that is otherwise linguistically normal

24

What does dysarthria result from?

spasticity or paresis of the muscles used for speaking

25

What are the 2 types of dysarthria?

Spastic dysarthria
Flaccid dysarthria

26

Spastic dysarthria is caused by damage to the _____ motor neurons.

upper

27

What is spastic dysarthria characterized by?

harsh, awkward speech

28

Flaccid dysarthria is caused by damage to the _____ motor neurons.

lower

29

What is flaccid dysarthria characterized by?

paresis of speech muscles

30

What are the 4 A's of cerebral cortex damage?

- aphasia
- apraxia
- agnosia
- astereognosis

31

What is the result of lesion to the dorsolateral prefrontal association cortex?

loss of executive function and divergent thinking

32

What is the result of lesion to the parietotemporal association cortex?

- inability to handle new information effectively
- inability to distinguish relevant from irrelevant information
- difficulty generalizing information
- become upset with even minor changes in routine

33

What is the result of lesion to the parietotemporal association cortex in the left hemisphere?

Wernicke's aphasia

34

What is the result of lesion to the parietotemporal association cortex in the right hemisphere?

neglect and/or difficulty understanding nonverbal communication

35

What is the result of lesion to the ventral and medial dorsal prefrontal association cortex?

disturbances of personality and emotions

36

What do lesions that affect the somatic marker circuitry cause?

poor judgment

37

What is emotional lability?

the abnormal, uncontrolled expression of emotions

38

What are the 3 aspects of emotional lability?

- Abrupt mood shifts, usually to anger, depression or anxiety
- Involuntary, inappropriate emotional expression in the absence of subjective emotion
- Emotion, triggered by nonspecific stimuli unrelated to the emotional expression

39

The reward pathway comprises dopamine neurons from where to where?

the ventral tegmental area (VTA) to the ventral striatum

40

What is the "motivation" neurotransmitter?

dopamine

41

What can be defined as the loss of behavioral control in response to a stimulus combined with the continued use of a substance, regardless of the negative consequences?

Addiction

42

The loss of declarative memory is called what?

amnesia

43

What are 3 language disorders? What do each affect?

- Aphasia: spoken language
- Alexia: comprehension of written language
- Agraphia: the ability to write

44

What are 4 common types of aphasia?

- Broca’s
- Wernicke’s
- Conduction
- Global

45

Describe Broca's aphasia

difficulty expressing or using language

46

Describe Wernicke's aphasia

Impaired language comprehension

47

What is conduction aphasia the result of?

damage to the neurons that connect Wernicke’s and Broca’s areas

48

What is global aphasia?

The inability to use language in any form

49

Damage to the right cortex in the area corresponding to Broca’s area may cause what?

flat affect

50

What is neglect?

the tendency to behave as if one side of the body and/or one side of space does not exist

51

What side of the body does neglect often affect?

the left side

52

What are 2 types of neglect?

Personal and Spatial

53

What is personal neglect?

Unilateral lack of awareness of sensory stimuli, personal hygiene and grooming, movement of the limbs

54

What is spatial neglect?

Unilateral lack of understanding of spatial relationships, resulting in a deranged internal representation of space

55

What is lateropulsion?

the powerful pushing away from the less paretic side in sitting, as well as during transfers, standing, and walking

56

What does loss of consciousness result from? (2 things)

- the movement of the cerebral hemispheres relative to the brainstem (causing torque of the brainstem)
- an abrupt increase in intracranial pressure

57

ADHD affects _-_% of children and _-_% of adults.

2-6

2-4

58

Girls with ADHD are more likely to be _____ than are boys.

inattentive

59

Boys with ADHD tend to be what?

hyperactive or impulsive

60

What are Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)?

the abnormal anatomy and connectivity of the limbic and striatal social brain systems

61

What causes ASD?

An immune attack on brain proteins, in addition to genetic factors

62

What is epilepsy?

sudden attacks of excessive cortical neuronal discharge, interfering with brain function

63

What are the 2 main types of generalized epileptic seizures?

- Absence seizures
- Tonic-clonic seizures

64

What 3 things reduce the capability for understanding and reasoning?

Cognitive disability, dementia, and dyslexia

65

What are 2 common causes of cognitive disability?

- trisomy 21
- untreated phenylketonuria

66

What is trisomy 21 aka?

Down's syndrome

67

What is phenylketonuria (PKU)?

an autosomal recessive defect in metabolism, resulting in the retention of a common amino acid, phenylalanine (PHE)

68

What does an accumulation of PHE result in?

demyelination and, later, neuronal loss

69

What are the most common causes of dementia?

- multiple infarcts
- Alzheimer’s disease (AD)
- diffuse Lewy body disease
- Parkinson’s dementia
- chronic traumatic encephalopathy

70

What causes Alzheimer’s disease?

Altered brain endothelial cells which leads to blood-brain barrier malfunction and release factors injurious or toxic to neurons

71

What is the most common learning disability?

dyslexia

72

What is alien hand syndrome?

the involuntary, uncontrollable movement of the upper limb

73

What may cause alien hand syndrome?

damage to a variety of cortical and subcortical structures or by callosotomy

74

What are the 3 approaches to recovering from a stroke?

- Compensation approaches
- Remediation approaches
- Motor control approaches

75

What are somatoform disorders?

Emotional distress that is subconsciously converted into physical symptoms

76

_______ disorders are described as inflexible, maladaptive patterns of inner experience and behavior.

Personality

77

What are the 3 general types of personality disorders?

- eccentric
- acting out
- fearful

78

What are delusions?

false beliefs, despite evidence to the contrary

79

What are hallucinations?

sensory perceptions experienced without corresponding sensory stimuli

80

What is mania?

excessive excitement, euphoria, delusions, and overactivity

81

What is depression?

a syndrome of hopelessness and a sense of worthlessness, with aberrant thoughts and behavior

82

People with depression have reduced levels of _____ metabolites in their cerebrospinal fluid.

serotonin

83

What is anxiety?

the feeling of tension or uneasiness that accompanies anticipating danger

84

What is panic disorder?

An episode of intense fear that begins abruptly and lasts 10 to 15 minutes.

85

People with OCD have _____ activity in dorsal, cognitive prefrontal areas combined with
______ activity in ventral, emotion-related prefrontal-striate circuits, and ______ amygdala activity.

decreased

increased

increased

86

What can defined as a group of disorders consisting of disordered thinking, delusions, hallucinations, lack of motivation, apathy, and social withdrawal?

Schizophrenia

87

What are neural prostheses?

devices that substitute for a diseased or an injured part of the nervous system to enhance function

88

What are 2 examples of neural prostheses?

deep-brain stimulation (DBS) and brain-computer interfaces

89

Deep-Brain Stimulation is most frequently used by those with what disease?

Parkinson’s

90

Deep-Brain Stimulation to which areas of the brain are effective in treating depression?

ventral striatum or area 25