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Flashcards in CFD5- Pharyngeal arches Deck (48)
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1

what are 4 primary germ layers?

-Ectoderm
-Mesoderm
-Endoderm
-neural crest/ ecto-mesenchyme

2

Describe the ectoderm.

skin, neural tube, etc this comes from the Epiblast layer

3

Describe the mesoderm.

forms everything else and is from migratory cells of the epiblast layer

4

Describe the endoderm.

gut- this comes from the hypoblast

5

Describe the neural crest/ echo-mesenchyme.

from the ectoderm that migrates into mesoderm to form structures in head and neck

6

how is neural tube formed?

ectoderm

7

Describe the formation of feotus.

-sperm fusing with egg
-blastocyst formed
-Embryoblast differentiates into two components – epiblast and hypoblast
amniotic fluid seeping in to form the amniotic cavity –gaps formed so nutrients can get to the cells-this layer of animal cells will form ectoderm and endoderm
-The mesoderm forms and migrates in from the sides and forms a divide between the ectoderm and the endoderm
-neuralition
-The ectoderm migrates into the mesoderm and folds

8

what day do the arches form?

4th and 5th week

9

How do the arches change?

Cartilages are made very early and then disappear and replaced by bones

10

how is the stomatodeum (oral cavity) formed?

gap formed by the disintegration of a layer of cells from the oropharyngeal membrane

11

what are the arches separated by externally?

clefts/grooves

12

what are the arches separated by internally?

pouches

13

what is the only arch not lined by endoderm on the inside?

1

14

what lines all the arches on the outside?

ectoderm

15

what does each arch have?

-artery
-nerve
-cartilage
-muscle
-ectoderm (outside)
-endoderm (inside)- except 1st arch

16

what is the 1st arch called?

mandibular arch

17

what does the first arch form?

mandible

18

what is the mandibular arch made of?

mandibular and maxillary process

19

Describe the cartilage: meckel's cartilage.

-Primitive support, largely disappears
-Forms:
2 bones:
-Incus
-malleus
2 ligaments:
-Sphenomandibular
-Sphenomalleolar

20

what does the 1st pharyngeal arch give rise to?

-Body of tongue
-Muscles of mastication:
Temporalis, masseter, pterygoids
Mylohyoid, anterior body of digastric

21

what nerve innervates the 1st pharyngeal arch?

V (trigeminal)

22

what is the blood supply of the 1st pharyngeal arch?

maxillary and carotid arteries

23

Describe treacher-collins syndrome.

-Genetic-can be a simple as a single polymorphism.
-Failure of neural crest cell migration
-Facial Bone hypoplasia:
Mandible and zygoma
-Ear abnormalities
-Clefts
-Dental anomalies:
Tooth agenesis
Enamel deformities
Misplacement upper 6s

24

what does the 2nd arch called?

hyoid arch

25

what does the reicherts cartilage form?

-Stapes
-Lesser horn and superior hyoid body
-styloid process, stylohyoid ligament

26

what muscles are in the 2nd arch?

facial expression and posterior belly digastric

27

what other tissues are in the 2nd arch?

thyroid gland and tonsil

28

what nerve innervates the 2nd arch?

VII (facial)

29

what does the 3rd arch form?

-greater horn of hyoid
-inferior hyoid body
-root of the tongue

30

what muscle is in the 3rd arch?

stylopharyngess muscle