Flashcards in Ch. 1-13 FINAL EXAM Deck (115)
4 essential elements of the SMCR model
Source - the encoder of the message. Message - meant to convey the sources meaning. Channel - which carries the message. Receiver - who decodes the message.
Five canons of rhetoric (IASMD)
- Invention: Finding ways to persuade.- Arrangement: Putting together the structure of a coherent argument.- Style: Presenting the argument to stir the emotions.- Memory: Speaking without having to prepare or memorize a speech.- Delivery: Making effective use of voice, gesture, etc.
6 strategies of the intensify/downplay model, also called Ranks models. (RAC ODC)
Intensification - Repetition, Association, Composition.Downplaying - Omission, Diverson, Confusion.
The elaboration-likelihood model
ELM two main routes
Central information processing route - receiver consciencely and directly focuses on the persuasive communication.Peripheral information processing route - the information may be processed almost instantly or just by the senses.Ex : Music playing
What moves people
Aristotle's definition of rhetoric
Ethos, logos, pathos.
Ethos, logos, pathos
E - Sources credibility.L - the idea of using logical or rational appeals.P - the use of the emotional appeals.
First, persuasion dependent on a sources credibility, or ethos, which is why the testimonial is such an effective persuasive tactic in much advertising
Includes the elements of fulfilling duties and obligations, of being accountable to other individuals and groups, of adhering to agreed-upon standards, and of being accountable to one's own conscious.
Persuasion consist of artistic and in artistic proofs. The persuader controls artistic proofs, such as the choice of evidence, the organization of the persuasion, style of delivery, and language choices.In artistic proof, includes things not controlled by the speaker, such as the occasion, the time allotted to the speaker, or things that bound persons to certain action, such as undeniable facts or statistics.
Intensification - Repetition, Association, Composition.
- Repetition-slogans, jingles, recurring examples or themes.- Association-linking a positive or negative valued idea to one's persuasive advice.- Composition - graphic layout, design, typeface, and so on.
Downplaying - Omission, Diverson, Confusion.
- Omission - half truths, slanted or biased evidence.- Diversion - shifting attention to bogus issues, and so on.- Confusion - making things overly complex, using jargon, faulty logic, and so on.
Adaptation to the audience
Most persuaders seek to secure some kind of response from receivers. Persuaders must decide the ethical intermediate point between their own idea and it's pure form and that idea modified to achieve maximum impact with the audience.
Focus on value judgments concerning degrees of right and wrong, virtue and vice, and ethical obligations in human conduct.
Freedom versus responsibility tension
Might occur when we, as individuals, carry to an extreme the now traditional view that the best test of the soundness of our ideas is their ability to survive in the free and open public "marketplace" of ideas.
Describe the rumors, controversial statements, and provocative photos or videos that are quickly picked up, rapidly spread, and widely diffused through blogs, email, and social network media such as YouTube and Twitter.
The golden rule
Persons familiar with the Christian religious tradition may think that the golden rule is unique to that religion. One interpretation of the golden rule is that we should only do specific actions to others if we would allow them to do the same specific actions to us.
The platinum rule
Do unto others as they themselves would have done unto you.
5 of Kenneth Burke pentad (ASAAP)
- Act - what is going on.- Scene - background.- Agent - main person.- Agency - how you get your message across.- Purpose - why you did it.
Refers to the way the story hangs together and thus has meaning or impact.
Relates to whether it rings true with the hearers experience.
Dealt with future policy, with special attention to the legislative and political realms.
Treated present situations that were often ceremonial focusing on praise or blame.
Considered allegations of past wrongdoing in the legal arena
Quintilian's ideal speaker was
The "good person speaking well" he established a public school of rhetoric in Rome in the first century A.D.
Researchers have frequently found low or no relationship between attitudes and behavioral change resulting from persuasive messages. For example, many smokers report that smoking is bad for their health and that may eventually kill them, but if you ask them whether they intended to stop, they may say no or maybe in the future. So our attitudes may be negative toward the dangers that behavior pose, but our attitudes toward the solutions to avert the dangers are negative, neutral, or so Weakly positive that we do not start a program to change our behavior.
Refers to the practice of validating knowledge by experience or observation. Most empirical studies of persuasion use statistical methods to analyze experimental results, surveys of persuasive behaviors, or actual behaviors.
Are those that affect people's behaviors without deliberate intentions to behave in that way. Although measuring implicit attitudes has sometimes been problematic, it continues to be one of the more investigating areas in attitude change and behavior.