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Flashcards in CH 1-3 Deck (47)
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1

Give two reasons for studying measurement

1. create flexibility 2. improve communication

2

Define "measurement"

Measurement consists of rules for assigning symbols to objects so as to scale or classify attributes

3

Describe the scaling aspect of measurement

representing quantities of attributes numerically

4

Describe the classification aspect of measurement

defining whether the objects fall in the same or different categories with respect to a given attribute

5

Ordinal Scale

variables whose categories have a meaningful, hierarchical order

6

Interval Scale

variables whose order has meaning and the numbers used to represent the attribute have meaning; no true zero point

7

Nominal Scale

used to classify variables that can be placed in categories , characterized by kind

8

Ratio Scale

variables whose order has meaning and the numbers used to represent the attribute have meaning; true zero point

9

Reliability

consistency; does the instrument produce scores that are internally consistent or stable across time?

10

Validity

legitimacy; does the instrument measure what it is intended to measure?

11

What are the four primary methods of measuring health behaviors?

1. Self-report 2. Observation 3. Biobehavioral measure 4. Electronic monitors

12

List some examples of self-report.

1. Interviews 2. Questionnaires 3. Journals/Diaries 4. Response Scales 5. Indexes

13

List some examples of scaling methods.

1. Visual Analog Scale 2. Thurstone Scale 3. Likert Scale 4. Guttman Scale 5. Semantic Differential Rating Scale

14

Measurement Error

the degree to which a measure deviates from the ideal level of reliability and validity

15

Random Error

error that is due to chance factors that influence the measurement of a variable; affects the reliability of a measurement

16

Systematic Error

error that is due to factors that systematically increase or decrease true scores of an attribute; affects the validity of a measure; can be additive or correlational

17

Additive Systematic Error

a consistent deviation from the true score in the same direction (e.g. a scale that always adds 2 pounds to the actual weight)

18

Correlational Systematic Error

measures consistently inflate or deflate scores but do so in different ways for different responders (e.g. some subjects answers may be consistently more positive)

19

Response Sets

patterns of responses or bias in responses

20

What are the types of response sets?

1. Social Desirability 2. Acquiescence and Nay-Saying 3. End Aversion/Central Tendency 4. Positive Skew 5. Halo

21

Social Desirability

the tendency of subjects to attribute socially desirable traits to themselves; e.g. faking-good or faking bad

22

Acquiescence and Nay-Saying

the tendency of subjects to choose true over false or agree over disagree (or the opposite)

23

End Aversion/Central Tendency

avoidance of extremes (e.g. rarely picking strongly agree/disagree)

24

Positive Skew

the tendency of people to hold extreme attitudes about a topic

25

Halo

the tendency for rating of specific traits to be influenced by a general attitude, or set, toward a person (e.g. course evaluations)

26

Recall

a major source of self-report error in which the ability and motivation of respondents to provide accurate information about behaviors or events that occurred in the past

27

A graphic rating scale that uses a straight line and gives a numeric score based on the distance from one end of the line to the subject's response

Visual Analog Scale

28

A rating scale that pre-weights items to generate a score for endorsed items

Thurston Scale

29

A summated rating scale that uses several items to asses a single attribute through adding individual response ratings to obtain a single score

Likert Scale

30

A rating scale structured so that an affirmative response to one item in a set suggests affirmative responses to other items in that set. Total score is obtained by adding all the affirmative answers

Guttman Scale