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Flashcards in Ch. 1 Deck (26)
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1

Anthropology

The biological study of the human species. Anthropology includes the study of human biology, human physical evolution, human cultural evolution, and human adaptation

2

Applied Anthropology

Anthropology used to address current practical problems and concerns

3

Archeology

A subfield of anthropology that studies the human cultural past and the reconstruction of past cultural systems

4

Belief Systems

Ideas that are taken on faith and cannot be scientifically tested. Examples are religions, philosophers, and ethical and moral beliefs. Compare with scientific method.

5

Bioanthropology

Another name for biological anthropology

6

Biocultural

Focusing on the interaction of biology and culture

7

Biological Anthropology

A subfield of anthropology that studies as a biocultural species

8

Cultural Anthropology

A subfield of Anthropology that focuses on human cultural behavior and cultural systems and the variation in cultural expression among human groups

9

Culture

Ideas and behaviors that are learned and shared. Also, the system is made up of the sum total of these ideas and behaviors that is unique to a particular society. Nonbiological means of adaptation

10

Deduction

Suggesting specific data that would be found if a hypothesis were true, a step in the scientific method of involving the testing of hypotheses.

11

Forensic Anthropologist

A scientist who applies anthropology to legal matters, usually in the form of identifying skeletal remains and assessing the time and cause of death

12

Holistic

Assuming an interrelationship among the parts of a subject. Anthropology is a holistic discipline.

13

Human Ecology

A specialty of anthropology that studies the relationships between humans and their environments.

14

Hunter-gatherers

Societies that rely on naturally occurring sources of food. They have no domestic plants or animals except, perhaps, dogs.

15

Hypotheses

Educated guesses to explain natural phenomena. In the scientific method, hypotheses must be testable.

16

Induction

Developing a general explanation from specific observations. The step in the scientific method that generates hypotheses.

17

Linguistic Anthropology

A subfield of anthropology that studies language as a human characteristic and attempts to explain the differences among languages and the relationship between a language and the society that uses it.

18

Osteology

The study of structure, function, and evolution of the skeleton

19

Paleoanthropology

A specialty that studies the human fossil record

20

Physical Anthropology

The traditional name for biological anthropology

21

Primates

Large-brained, mostly tree-dwelling mammals with three-dimensional color vision and grasping hands. Humans are primates.

22

Primatology

A specialty of anthropology that studies nonhuman primates

23

Science

The method of inquiry that requires the generation, testing, and acceptance or rejection of hypotheses

24

Scientific Method

The process of conducting scientific inquiry

25

Species

A group of organisms that can produce fertile offspring among themselves but not with members of other groups. A closed genetic population, usually physically distinguishable from other populations.

26

Theory

A well-supported general idea that explains a large set of factual patterns. In science, theory is a positive term.