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Flashcards in Ch. 2 Questions Deck (35)
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1

The most accepted definition of evolution is

The idea that species change over time and give rise to other species

2

Greek philosopher Anaximander proposed that humans had arisen from

Fish

3

In what year did Irish archbishop James Ussher calculate the earth was created?

4004 B.C.

4

What important aspect of nature did Darwin recognize that the others both before and after him did not fully appreciate or incorporate into their research?

There is an incredible degree of variation that existed within living species

5

What scientist is credited with recognizing the appearance of plant and animal fossils as the remains of creatures that had become extinct or that existed in different form?

Robert Hooke

6

A catastrophist believes that

The history of the earth is explained by a series of global calamities

7

Who is accredited with the idea of acquired characteristics?

Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck

8

Comte de Buffon believed that the history of the earth, as seen in its strata, could be explained by everyday processes such as erosion and deposition of sediments in water occurring repeatedly without interruption. This idea is also known as

Uniformitarianism

9

Which scientist, nicknamed "Strata," produced the first geological map?

William Smith

10

Which of the following views associated with uniformitarianism is NOT accepted by modern science?

Changes in the overall appearance of the earth are relatively minor and occur in great cycles

11

Who influenced Charles Darwin's ideas on the relationship between populations and their resources?

Thomas Malthus

12

What is most significant about the work of Hooke, Steno, Hutton, Smith, and Lyell?

They brought the study of the earth into the realm of the natural, rather than the supernatural

13

Who devised the system of scientific names still used today to classify living things?

Carolus Linnaeus

14

According to Darwin, which individuals would have a better chance of reproductive success?

Those individuals that are better adapted

15

What percentage of all species that have ever lived is now extinct?

90 percent or more

16

Charles Darwin alone without influence came up with the theory of evolution

False

17

Gregor Mendel derived the basic laws of genetics using his research on pea plants in the 1800's

True

18

According to Robert Hooke, Noah's flood was caused by earthquakes

True

19

Stratigraphy is the study of the earth's strata in which the lower layers represent of older material while higher layers represent younger material.

True

20

Charles Lyell, a proponent of the idea of uniformitarianism, believed that some day the dinosaurs would reappear

True

21

Evolution by natural selection has no particular direction towards a perfect form

True

22

Alfred Russell Wallace came up with the idea of natural selection independent of Darwin

True

23

Darwin fully understood the processes of genetics

False

24

The term genotype refers to

The alleles possessed by an organism

25

Evolution takes place within

Populations

26

If we see change in the allele frequencies in a population over time

We know that some or all of the processes of evolution are affecting the population

27

Protein Synthesis

DNA has the recipe for making proteins, a DNA sequence determines what protein is produced

28

Sickle cell exists in high frequencies in certain populations, this can best be explained by

Natural selection; in malarial environments, individuals who are heterozygous for sickle cell are fitter

29

Indiana Jones visits the Yanomamo and after testing them finds that only 3 individuals in the small village of people have blood type A. His great granddaughter, Elsie Jones returns after two generations and finds that no one in the village has blood type A any longer. Which process of evolution is likely the cause for these changes?

Gene drift

30

Gene drift is significant in

Small populations because of their small size