Flashcards in Ch. 1 Deck (35):
Who is Alexander Graham?
The inventor of the telephone in 1876.
What is convergence?
The coming together of computing, telecommunications, and media in a digital environment.
What are three types of convergence?
Technological, economic, cultural
What is technological convergence?
Rise of digital media and online communications networks. Most visible.
What is economic convergence?
Merging of Internet or telecommunication companies with traditional media companies.
What is cultural convergence?
The values, beliefs, and practices shared by a group of people.
What is this an example of? When an American show is popular in other countries.
Globalization of media
What is consolidation?
A process whereby traditional media companies have grown fewer and much larger in the past fifty years through mergers and acquisitions.
What are the 8 implications of convergence?
1. Media organization changes
2. Media type changes
3. Media content changes
4. Media use changes
5. Media distribution changes
6. Media audiences changes
7. Media Profession changes
8. Attitudes and values change
What is oligopoly?
An economic structure in which a few very large, very powerful owners control an industry or collection of related industries.
What is mass communications?
Communications to a large group or groups of people that remain largely unknown to the sender of the message.
What are cookies?
Info that a website puts on a user's local hard drive so that it accesses the website again.
What is behavioral targeting?
Advertisers tracking individuals' web browsing behavior to provide ads that closely match the topics of sites visited or searchers made.
What is citizen journalism?
The gathering and sharing of news, and information by public citizens, particularly via mobile and social media, sometimes via traditional media.
What is user-generated content? (UGC)
Content created by the general public for distribution by digital media.
What is peer to peer? (P2P)
The basis of file-sharing services, a communications model and network whose computers are considered equal peers who can send, store, and receive information equally well.
What is viral marketing?
Promoting a product, service, or brand online through word of mouth, usually via online discussion groups, chats, and emails.
What is a hyperlink?
Clickable pointer to other online content.
What is interpersonal communication?
Communication between two or more individuals, often in a small group, although it can involve communication between a live speaker and an audience.
What is synchronous media?
Media that take place in real time and require the audience to be present during the broadcast or performance, such as live tv or radio.
What is asynchronous media?
Media that DOESNT require the audience to assemble at a given time, such as printed materials and recorded audio or video.
What are the functions of mass communications?
Surveillance, correlation, cultural transmission, entertainment.
What is surveillance?
Primarily the journalism function of mass communication, which provides information about processes, issues, events, and other developments in society.
What is correlation?
Media interpretation ascribing meaning to issues and events that helps individuals understand their roles within the larger society and culture.
What is cultural transmission?
The process of passing on culturally relevant knowledge, skills, attitudes, and values from person to person or group to group.
What is the simplified communications model?
Developed by Wilbur Schramm, based on the mathematical theory of communication. It includes a source who encodes a message, or signal, which is transmitted or directly via interpersonal communication to a destination where the receiver decodes it.
What is media literacy?
The process of critically analyzing media content by considering it's particular presentation, its underlying political or social messages.
What is semiotics?
The study of signs and symbols.
What is framing?
The presentation and communication of a message in a particular way that influences our perception of it.
What is the echo effect?
A phenomenon that occurs when people surround themselves with online voices that echo their own, reinforcing their views and the belief that those opinions are in the majority when in fact they can not be.
What is media grammar?
The underlying rules, structures, and patterns by which a medium presents itself and is used and understood by the audience.
What is media bias?
A real or perceived viewpoint held by journalists and news organizations that slants news coverage unfairly, contrary to professional journalism's stated goals of balanced coverage and objectivity.
Who is Robert McChesney?
Founded FreePress to promote media reform and weaken the power to corporate media giants.
What is centralized media organizations?
Functions of media: including production, distribution, marketing and advertising, are controlled by a single individual or unit.