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Flashcards in Test 2 Deck (23):

Communications theorist. Believed printed word has changed the way we think. It can make us think more logically and critically. It can make us think more logically and critically.

Marshall McLeun


Manuscript book of individually bound pages. Began replacing the scroll, establishing the modern book form.



German printer credited with creating the first mechanical printing press in 1455. Also known, as the “Gutenberg Bible.” The 42 lines of type (print), which started what we have today; it allowed for mass literacy, which brought the Renaissance about. Considered one of the first mechanically printed works.

Johannes Gutenberg


irst paperback form whose cost of ten cents made it accessible even to the poor. Lead to the printing of paperback books. Mass marketed, inexpensive books.

Dime Books


Inexpensive, softcover books small enough for a back pocket and sold in bookstores, supermarkets, drugstores, and other public places.

Mass marketed Paperback


Publisher of the “New York Sun”, who originated the penny press in 1833 by offering his paper on the streets for a penny.

Benjamin Day


Newspapers that sold for a penny, making them accessible to everyone. Supported by advertising rather than subscriptions, they attract as large an audience as possible.

Penny press


Legal agreement permitting newspapers in the same market or city to merge their business operations for economic reasons while maintaining independent editorial operations.

Joint Operated Agreement (JOA)


First patented by Thomas Edison in 1877 as a “talking machine,” it used a tinfoil cylinder to record voices from telephone conservations.



It used beeswax to record sound rather than tinfoil. Developed by Alexander Graham Bell and inventor Charles Tainter.



Developed by inventor Emile Berliner, it used a flat disc rather than a cylinder to record sound.



The biggest recording companies, Universal music group, Sony music, and the Warner Music Company. Which control much of the music industry partly through their powerful distribution channels and ability to market music to mass audiences.

Major labels


Small companies that produce and distribute records. Not part of the three major corporations, they include those producing only one or two albums a year as well as larger independents such as Disney.

Independent labels


Technologies that let copyright owners control the level of access or use allowed for a copyrighted work, such as limiting the number of times a song can be copied.

Digital Rights Management (DRM)


Demonstrated the existence of radio waves in 1885, setting in the stage for the development of modern wireless communications. The measurement frequencies were named after him.

Heinrich Hertz


Inventor of railway telegraphy in 1887, a type of wireless communications that allowed moving trains to communicate with each other and with stations, greatly reducing the number of railway collisions.

Granville T. Woods


Italian inventor and creator of radiotelegraphy, or wireless transmission, in 1899.

Guglielmo Marconi


Considered the father of radio broadcasting because of his invention that permitted reliable voice transmissions for both point-to-point communication and broadcasting.

Lee de Forest


An act of congress that created the Federal Radio Commission, intended to regulate the largely chaotic airwaves and based on the principle that companies had a civic duty to use airwaves, a limited public good, responsibly.

Radio Act of 1927


Formed by the Radio Act of 1827, the commission, the precursor to the FCC, created a policy that favored fewer high-power radio broadcasting stations rather than numerous low-power stations.

Federal Radio Commission (FCR)


Established in 1934, the principal communications regulatory body at the federal in the United States.

Federal Communications Commission (FCC)


Columbia University engineering professor who invented FM radio transmission.

Edwin Howard Armstrong


Head of RCA, he promoted the development of television as a mass medium yet blocked the development of FM radio for years because RCA produced and sold AM radio receivers.

David Sarnoff