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Flashcards in Ch 1 Deck (18)
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1

Microbiology
-bacteria
-fungi
-algae
-viruses
-protozoans
-helminths

Area of biology that deals with study of life forms that are not readily observed w/o magnification

2

Endosymbiosis

Theory that the mitochondria and chloroplast are ancient prokaryotes that took up residence in the precursors of eukaryotic cells
eukaryotes started lines of evolution and gave rise to fungi, plants, and multicellular animals

3

Prokaryotic Cell

Cell wall
cell membrane
ribosomes
flagellum
chromosomes

*lack dedicated organelles to carry out functions
*all prokaryotes are microbes

4

Eukaryotic Cell

ribosome
flagellum
chromosomes

*have membrane bound organelles
>mitochondria, golgi apparatus, chloroplasts, endoplasmic reticulum

*have nucleus

5

Biotechnology

the manipulation of microorganisms to make products in an industrial setting

6

Genetic Engineering

manipulates the genetics of microbes, plants, and animals for the prpose of creating new products & GMOs

technique:
Recombinant DNA
-process allows alteration of DNA
-allows switch genetic material from one organism to another

7

Bioremidiation

introduces microbes into environment to restore stability or to clean up toxic pollutants

required to control pollution

8

Parasitism

A parasite lives in or on the body of a larger organism

9

Spontaneous generation

belief that certain living things arose from what virtual forces present in nonliving or decomposing matter
fall of superstition, rise f microbiology

10

Theory

a collection of statements, propositions, or concepts that explains or accounts for a natural event

11

Law

evidence of accuracy and predictability of a theory is so compelling that the next level of confidence is reached

>theory becomes law

12

Robert Koch
-Kock's postulates

(Kock's postulates)
a series of proofs that verified the germ theory and could establish wether an organism was pathogenic & which disease it caused
-basic premise for establishing pathogen-disease link

13

Louis Pasteur
-vaccine
-pasteurization
-biogenesis

-cont to development of 2 vaccines
>Rabies >Anthrax
-clarified actions of microbes in whine&beer fermentation
-Pasteurization
-developed first studies supporting "Germ theory"
-disproved spontaneous generation

14

Germ theory

(Germ theory)
-showed human diseases could arise from infection
-diseases are caused by microorganisms

15



Biogenesis

(1) All Species originate from preexisting species through inheritance of traits
(2)Closely related organisms have similar features because they evolve from ancestral forms

16

Phylogeny


Evolution

-based on morphology, Physiology, Genetics

-natural relatedness between groups of living things

-changes that most favor the survival of a particular organism tend to be retained

17

Whittaker's five kingdom systems

-Plants (eukaryotic, multicellular)
-Animals (eukaryotic, multicellular)
-Protists (eukaryotic)
>Algae and Protozoants
-Fungi (eukaryotic)
-monerans(Prokaryoics)
>Bacteria &archea

18

Woese-Fox system

Domains:
-Bacteria
-Archaea
-Eukarya
>Protista, Plantae, Fungi, Animalia